Athenian democracy Sparta Peloponnesian War Sophism Plato’s Republic

Around how many Poleis were there?
250
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When did Democratic revolutions start?
6th Century BC
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How long did Democracy last for in Athens?
200 years
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When did Athens become democratic?
508BC
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Who made Athens democratic?
Cleisthenes
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How big was Athens?
100km by 60km and had a population of about 300,000
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How could you have full Citizen rights in Athens?
Had to have proof all 4 Grandparents were Athenian citizens, had to be male and had to be over 20
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What did Metics have?
Legal rights but no Political rights
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How many Metics?
About a quarter of the population
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How many Slaves?
About as many as there were citizens
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What did Solon do?
In 594 BC he had created 4 categories of Athenian Citizens that were property classes (Agricultural production)
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What was Solon's name for if you had 500+ bits of land?
Pentakosiomedimnoi
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Solon's name for if you had (300-500) land?
Hippeis
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Solon's name for if you had (200-300) land?
Zeugitai
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Solon's name for if you had (<200) land?
Thetes
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How was Athens ruled before 508BC?
By a small number of powerful families EUPATRIDS (well-born). 9 ARCHONS (magistrates) would be chosen from that class.
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How long did Athenian Democracy last?
508 - 322BC
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What did Cleisthenes do about the original 4 tribes idea?
He abolished it and instead introduced 10 Phylai of whom would be made of people from a mixture of urban, coastal and inland peeps (to try combine a varied selection) - they had no links between them
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How many Demes were there?
139/140
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What were the Demes?
They were originally geographical but then became hereditary - it was a way of checking if Athenian Citizen or nah. A Deme was either urban, coastal or inland.
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What was the Ekklesia?
It was an assembly that made all of the legislative and executive decisions
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By the end of the Democratic period, how many times would they meet up?
The year was split into 10 months and they would meet up 4 times during each month (40 times a year)
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How long did the Assembly last?
All day
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How many male citizens were there?
40,000
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How many male citizens would go to the Assembly?
6000
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When was payment for going to the Assembly, Court Attendance, Membership of the Council + Boards of Mag service introduced?
In the middle of the Democratic period
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How much were people in the Assembly paid?
A days worth of unskilled labour
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How many were in the Boule?
500 Council members
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What did the Boule do?
They 1) were the front of Athenian Democracy when foreigners would hang out + assembly not on 2) They would set what topic the assembly would talk about
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How were the Boule members chosen?
By lot: 50 from each Phylai but had to be over 30
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How did the Boule membership work?
The 50 from each tribe would only be there for a month (public pay for them to live there), Boule held office for 1 month and Once you serve your term, you can't come back for a year. You could only serve twice in whole life to stop controlled.
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What did the Board of Magistrates do?
Did Admin. 10 members by lot from citizen body. Hold office 1 year only. Before holding tho youre judged by assembly, afterwards you are too. At end theres Public Auditing of how they all did
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How many people in the Judiciary?
At least 300 - sometimes up to 3000
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What did the Judiciary do?
They were the courts that would sort out Criminal law and Civil cases etc. Just a load of jurors and nothing else - they would decide everything even punishment.
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What were the Strategoi?
A board of 10 generals: each control a 10th. Overall commander too. They had absolute power over army but had to do what Assembly said.
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How were the Strategoi selected?
The Assembly would vote on who should be there - they would last a year and could be re-elected.
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What was Ostracism?
They would take 1 of the 40 assemblies to decide if someone needed removing from Athens and everyone would vote and people would be exhiled from Athens and its politics for 10 years.
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How many times was Ostracism used?
15 times in Athens in the 5th Century BC
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What was introduced to replace Ostracism?
Grapheparanomon
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When was Grapheparanomon introduced?
404BC
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What was Grapheparanomon?
a law or decision passed by the assembly could be accused of being against the spirit of the Athenian laws. If the law was found to be unconstitutional, the person who originally proposed it in the assembly was deemed to be guilty and could be punish
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What does Democracy mean?
The people rule
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What was Athens democracy like?
It wasn't the people as a whole ruling, it was a majority rule
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If it is not Political power that people have then what is it?
Potential power
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What was the first problem with Athens' democracy?
Even tho everyone had equal right to be involved, because of wealth/respectability and rhetoric etc., it really wasn't equal.
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What was the second problem with Athens' democracy?
It only involved proven Athenian Citizens who were male and over the age of 20 - no metics or women NOT TRUE DEMOCRACY
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Who is Sartori?
He thinks Democracy and DEMOKRATIA are two very different things and in reality if it was about today we would see it as TOTALITARIANISM
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What is Sartori's first claim?
Athens gave an obligation that all-rule and so we would qualify that as controlling people's lives and so thats TOTALITARIANISM
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What is Sartori's second claim?
Modern Democracy is nothing to do with all people ruling and instead is just about separating ourselves from the decision making and just controlling who has the power
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What is Sartori's argument?
Because everyone ruled, there was so protection from the government as everyone was the government!
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What proof is there of Sartori's argument?
The Trial of Socrates (399BC)
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What do we have in Modern Democracy that they didn't have?
Freedom of Speech (supposedly?) - this was disregarded by Athens
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What is Modern Democracy apparently trying to do?
Trying to remove ourselves from collective decision making and pushing responsibility onto the people who we vote into power.
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1st Argument against Sartori?
Maybe the people didn't need protection from the Government as it was their own Poleis?
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2nd Argument against Sartori?
His idea of modern democracy can be challenged as there are many conceptions of modern liberal democracy
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3rd Argument against Sartori?
It wasn't Athenian democracy that held relationship between Polis and Individual: it was all Greek Democracies! In fact Athens was sometimes celebrated for trying to loosen the ties
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When did Sparta conquer the Laconian plain?
8th Century BC
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When did Sparta conquer Messinia?
720BC
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What did Sparta do in response to HELOT uprisings?
Trained all the male citizens to become soldiers and be involved in no other economic activity
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When did Spartan boys leave home?
Aged 7
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When did Spartan boys begin military training?
Aged 14
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How long did Spartan men live with their group?
Until they were 30
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Spartan women?
Only Poleis to pay for women's education and they held importance for physical activity
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How many Kings did Sparta have?
Two: succession was hereditary and they would check up on one another
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What did the Kings serve in?
The Council of Elders: 28 other wealthy men over age of 60 - decided through acclamation
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What other thing in Spartan government was there?
The Assembly: held ultimate authority, only men over 30, and didn't debate, just decided if right or wrong
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What was the rule of Spartan land before 400BC?
It was publicly and privately owned - The conquered territory was divided into equal parts
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What was the League that Sparta was a part of?
The Peloponnesian
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What did Sparta benefit from the league?
While they would give other members their military help, the others would help protect them from helot uprisings
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When did the Greeks unite to defeat the Persians?
492 - 471 BC
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When did the Greeks defeat the Persians?
479BC
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When was the Delian League created?
477BC
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When was the peak of Athens' power?
450s - 413 BC
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Who tried to get out of the Delian League?
Naxos: they were forcibly restrained
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When did Athens move the Delian League's money from Delos to Athens?
In 454/53BC
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What was the Coinage Decree?
In 445BC, Athens made all of the members of the League change their coin to Athens' as well as measuring systems. They also made them buy grain through their market.
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When did Pericles rule until?
429BC
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Who was Pericles?
Politician, general, orator in Athens in its Golden Age between Greek victory in Persian Wars and Athens’ defeat in Peloponnesian War.
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How many times was Pericles elected chief general?
14 times
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When did Cleon rule until?
422BC
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Who was Cleon?
Opponent to Pericles; populist champion of democracy; anti-aristocratic; anti-intellectual; Demagogos; opposed peace with Sparta in 425BC.
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When did Alcibiades rule?
450 - 404BC
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Who was Alcibiades?
He was handsome and known for horse-races. V. ambitious and tried to get a raid on Sicily which was ultimately his downfall. He also changed sides a few times and went with Persia and Sparta? Got re-elected later but then got exiled for a 2nd time
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When was the Peloponnesian war?
431BC- 404BC
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What was the first phase?
431- 421 BC: Athenians stayed behind walls and Spartans didn't go away so they got Pericles out of power only to try bring him back when negot failed. P died of the plague tho (429BC)
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What was the interlude?
421 - 413 BC: Cleon (popularist) in charge and opposed Spartan peace in 425BC. Alcibiades then say go to Sicily and Spartans and others took chance to rebel and fite
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What was the last phase?
413- 404BC: Sparta allied w/ Persia. 411BC Athens has Oligarchy then change back 410BC
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How did Sparta ultimately win?
Even tho Athens won a sea battle(?) Argonusai, 405BC Sparta cut Athens grain supply and starved them into submission
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What happened to Athens in Spartan rule?
Athens ruled by 30 tyrannts for one year (404 - 403BC) then democracy restored
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What are the names of Plato's dialogues?
Republic, Gorgias and Protagoras
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What did Protagoras say?
Basically said that opinion is the only thing we can be sure of: everything is subjective and there is no truth
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When did Plato live?
427BC - 347 BC: during the central years of Athenian democracy
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What is Dike?
Moral uprightness: Justice
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Who does Plato first talk to?
Thrasymachus
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What does Thrasymachus believe?
That what is 'just' is the interest of the stronger
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What does Thrasymachus think makes you a fool?
If you even try thinking about what is morally right: there is no such thing!
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What did Plato create?
The idea of the Tripartite soul: (eg. body, desire and rationality)
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How does he describe controlling the tripartite?
Riding a chariot with Rationality controlling the two horses
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What analogy does he use for "functional excellence"?
He uses an eye
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What other argument does he have?
"Honour amongst thieves" argument which suggests everyone needs ruling somehow
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What 3 things does Plato think you needs for the soul?
Temperance, Courage and Wisdom
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How does Plato think Athens should be ruled?
By having the 'cave' idea of having the elites teach the others morally
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What are the names of the 3 groups Plato puts people into?
Guardians (philosophical elite), Auxiliaries (defend the POLIS against instability) and the Producers (make the consumables)
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Card 2

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When did Democratic revolutions start?

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6th Century BC

Card 3

Front

How long did Democracy last for in Athens?

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Card 4

Front

When did Athens become democratic?

Back

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Card 5

Front

Who made Athens democratic?

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