Theologian, Philosophers, Scholars e.t.c

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Aristotle -Cosmological argument.
Non-Christian, Greek philosopher. Aquinas was heavily influenced by his philosophy.
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Aquinas, Thomas (Saint) God's nature. Arguments for God's existence. Conscience. Miracles. Goodness and evil.
Major Catholic theologian. Believed human nature was damaged, not totally corrupted, by sin, and that therefore reason could be used as an authority. Developed the teleological, cosmological, and ontological arguments.
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Irenaeus (Saint)-Problem of Evil.
Irenaeus believed that God allowed evil because it helped us to learn, and to develop from 'spiritual infants' to spiritually mature, loving beings.
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Boethius-God's nature: clashing attributes
Boethius argued that we did have free will, even though God knew the future with certainty. This was because God is atemporal, and everything is the present to him.
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Paul (Saint)-Religious experience. Coping with suffering. Conscience. Life after death / body and soul.
One of the founding saints of the Christian Church. He had a conversion experience, and a mystical experience. / He wrote of Jesus' "spiritual body" after the Resurrection.
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Augustine (Saint)-Problem of Evil.
He posed the Problem of Evil as a logical problem, and created a theodicy to defend God's goodness. Essentially, he said that moral evil is caused by humans falling short of their good, God-given nature, and that natural evil is caused by the Devil a
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Francis (Saint)-Religious experience.
St Francis had many religious experiences, including a conversion experience, a meeting with Christ in the guise of a leper, and mystical experiences.
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Teresa of Avila (Saint)-Religious experience.
St Teresa had mystical experiences, and wrote about what they are and how to grow closer to God through prayer, and therefore to perhaps have a mystical experience.
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Schleiermacher, Friedrich-Religious experience. Problem of Evil.
Many people have a 'religious sense.' This is religious experience; and true religion is "sense and taste of the Infinite," (i.e. God). Religious experience is one of the most important ways of knowing God. / Points out something illogical in St Augu
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Bernadette of Soubrious (Saint)-Religious experience.
St Bernadette was a girl who had visions of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes. This is why Lourdes has become a place of pilgrimage for Catholics. Many people claim to have witnessed or received miracles there.
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Pullinger, Jackie-Religious experience.
A Protestant, who felt that God was calling her to do something, and wasn't sure what; she bought a ticket around the world, and felt she was meant to stop in Hong Kong. She worked there with those in gangs, transforming many people's lives by showin
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Hume, David-Arguments for God's existence. Religious experience. Miracles.
An atheist philosopher who presented arguments against the teleological and cosmological arguments, against religious belief as truly coming from God, and against a belief in miracles.
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Freud, Sigmund-Religious experience.
An atheist psychologist who argued that religious experience was explicable in psychological terms. He says people aren't experiencing God; the experience is being produced by the brain. He also argued against the existence of conscience.
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Feuerbach, Ludwig-Religious experience.
Fuerbach was an atheist, who argued that religious experience is a projection (creation) of the mind, and not an experience of an objective God.
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Swinburne, Richard-Arguments for God's existence. Religious experience.
A modern Christian philosopher of religion, who proposes a modern form of the design argument, based on the order and regularity of the universe (rather than based on purpose/teleological systems).
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Paley, William-Teleological argument.
A Christian clergyman who put forward a form of the design/teleological argument, based on the analogy of a pocket-watch. He said that just as a teleological system such as a pocket-watch implied a designer, so the teleological systems in nature impl
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Duns Scotus, John-God's intervention in the world: the Incarnation.
Duns Scotus was a Franciscan theologian. He said that God's motivation for becoming human in the Incarnation was purely love, and that he would have become human even if there'd be no need to redeem people.
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Eric Doyle, Fr-God's intervention in the world: the Incarnation.
Fr Doyle was a Franciscan friar and theologian. He said that in the Incarnation / person of Jesus, God revealed the archetype of humanity, i.e. what a perfect human is. This gives people an example to follow, and
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Butler, Joseph-Conscience
An Anglican Bishop who said that conscience was intuitive (and therefore not linked to reason), and that it was God speaking directly to a person, via prayer and the Holy Spirit.
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Ward, Keith-God's intervention in the world: miracles.
An Anglican minister, and theolgian / philosopher of religion. He points out that if God exists, miracles are only to be expected. To disprove the existence of miracles, really you need to disprove the existence of God first.
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Hick, John-God's intervention in the world: miracles. Life after death / body and soul. Problem of Evil.
Hick is a pluralist/universalist, which means that he says God works equally through all religions. As such, he would reject Hume's point about the miracles of different religions all contradicting each other. Instead, he says God works miracles in a
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Holland, R.F.-God's intervention in the world: miracles.
Believes in a weak definition of miracles
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Tillich, Paul-God's intervention in the world: miracles.
Believes that God is omnipresent, and a miracle is an occasion when we become more aware of God's presence. As such, saying that believing in miracles is too subjective isn't a problem for Tillich; part of the definition of a miracle is the interpret
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Wiles, Maurice-God's intervention in the world: miracles.
Wiles wrote God's Action in the World and argued that any God who performed miracles but didn't stop huge atrocities like the Holocaust would be evil. He says it's therefore better to believe that God doesn't do miracles.
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Bultmann, Rudolf-d's intervention in the world: miracles. Bible as an authority (biblical criticism)
Bultmann said that the Bible needed to be "demythologised," which meant that the 'myth' needed to be removed, and the underlying message understood. As such, he didn't believe in the biblical miracles as literally breaking the laws of nature.
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de Chardin, Pierre-Spiritual and religious experience: worship (symbols)
He said, "We are not physical beings having a spiritual experience; we are spiritual beings having a physical experience." He's pointing out that primarily, we are beings made for a relationship with God - we are spiritual.
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Bentham, Jeremy-Goodness and evil: definitions
Bentham developed the theory of utilitarianism.
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Moore, G.E.-Goodness and evil: definitions
He said that objective goodness existed, and people understood what it meant, but that it simply couldn't be defined. Goodness is a 'simple' concept, meaning it can't be broken down into other ideas (just as 'yellow' can't be broken down or explained
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Luther, Martin-Goodness and evil: the need for redemption. Bible as an authority.
The leader of the Protestant movement in Germany. He protested against numerous corruptions in/of the Catholic Church. He argued against the use of human reason as an authority in religion, and advocated the doctrine of sola scriptura.
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Calvin, John-Goodness and evil: the need for redemption. Bible as an authority.
A Protestant leader, after Luther. He went further than Luther with some of his views, developing the doctrines of Total Depravity (human nature being completely corrupted by sin), and of Predestination. He advocated a sola scriptura approach to fait
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Barth, Karl-Goodness and evil: the need for redemption. Bible as an authority. Conscience.
A highly influential Protestant theologian of the 20th century, who advocated the doctrine of sola scriptura. He argued that it's arrogant of humans to try and use Natural Theology (i.e. to use reason to try and work out truths about God), or to use
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Dostoevsky, Fyodor-Goodness and evil: the Problem of Evil
Dostoevsky was a Christian author and theologian. In The Brothers Karamazov, the character Ivan Karamazov says that he 'returns his ticket' to Heaven, because he refuses to worship a God who allows suffering. He said God should have created no world
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Keats, John-Goodness and evil: the Problem of Evil (Irenaeus' theodicy)
Keats was a Romantic poet (19th Century), who used the phrase "a vale of soul-making" to describe life. This idea fits with Irenaeus' idea of life as a journey to God, where we learn what goodness and love are along the way.
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Phillips, D.Z.-Goodness and evil: the Problem of Evil
He says that a God who allows or even planned evil is evil.
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Newman, John Henry-Conscience / the moral argument
Newman was an Anglican who later converted to Catholicism. He said that conscience was the highest moral authority, if it had been educated by the Bible and Church teaching, and if the person habitually practised virtues. He said that the feeling of
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Gunkel, Hermann-Bible as an authority (biblical criticism)
a biblical form critic
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Bornkamm, Gunther-Bible as an authority (biblical criticism)
a biblical redaction critic
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Wellhausen, Julius-Bible as an authority (biblical criticism)
a biblical source critic, who came up with the Documentary Hypothesis, which suggests that there are four main written sources in the Pentateuch (J, E, P, and D).
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Cano, Melchior-Bible as an authority (theories of inspiration)
Spanish Dominican theologian who supported/developed the theory of Plenary Verbal Inspiration
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Origen-Bible as an authority (theories of inspiration)
An early Church Father (theologian) who interpreted the Bible quite freely, finding mystical and spiritual meanings in the texts. He believed that human authors 'collaborated' with the Holy Spirit to write the biblical texts, i.e they were inspired b
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Aquinas, Thomas (Saint) God's nature. Arguments for God's existence. Conscience. Miracles. Goodness and evil.

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Major Catholic theologian. Believed human nature was damaged, not totally corrupted, by sin, and that therefore reason could be used as an authority. Developed the teleological, cosmological, and ontological arguments.

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Irenaeus (Saint)-Problem of Evil.

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Boethius-God's nature: clashing attributes

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Paul (Saint)-Religious experience. Coping with suffering. Conscience. Life after death / body and soul.

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