the weimar constitution and its issues

the number of men allowed in the army under the terms of the treaty of versailles
100,000
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the amount of reparations germany was ordered to pay
£6.6 billion
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the area of land demilitarised
the rhineland
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the group of countries - attempting to prevent another world war - germany was excluded from
the league of nations
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the number of ww1 german deaths
2,000,000 (55% of german troops were casualties)
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what the british army did to prevent supplies getting to germany
a naval blockade - where the navy blocked the sea around germany to prevent supply ships getting in
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which leader abdictated?
kaiser wilhelm 2 - his son (prince max) tried to form a government but it wasn't accepted by the us president
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the name given to the treaty of versailles
diktat (dictated peace)
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what was the stab-in-the-back theory?
where the public thought that because the front line never reached germany, the army could've continued fighting so by signing the treaty, the army were stabbed in the back
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what was the name given to the weimar government officials?
november criminals
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why was the name november criminals unfair?
ebert (the president) tried to stop the treaty but couldn't because germany was in such a weak position - the allies threatened invasion if the treaty wasn't signed
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the upsides of proportional representation
it takes everyone's view into account - every vote matters
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the downsides of proportional representation
it leads to coalitions which are weak governments
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what is article 48?
in an emergency (the definition of which is decided by the president), the president can overrule the constitution and make decisions without the support of the rest of the government so that they can act quickly e.g. in the face of violent rebellion
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why did article 48 have the potential to be bad?
it allowed dictatorship as the president decided what an emergency was and could rule unchallenged
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who were the freikorps?
ex-soldiers who were far-right and the only thing they hated more than the government was communists
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what year was the spartacist rising?
1919
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who led it (people and political party)
karl liebkencht and rosa luxemburg of the kpd (the communist party) - both of whom were shot by the freikorps
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how did the government stop the rising?
move from berlin to weimar and order the army and freikorps to deal with it
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what date (month and year) was the kapp putsch?
march, 1920
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who took part?
led by wolfgang kapp (the leader of the patriotic party) and the leader of the freikorps (general von luttwitz)
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how did the government deal with it?
ehbert called a strike in berlin so that the kapp putsch couldn't get through
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what year was hyperinflation?
1923
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what does it mean?
when so much money is printed that it loses its value (often, the money is worth less than the paper it's printed on) so more money has to be printed so that people have enough and so it gets worse and worse
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who did it affect the most?
the middle classes and smaller businesses as they lost all their savings
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why was hyperinflation good for some?
it allowed debts to be payed off easily
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what did the french do when hyperinflation meant that they weren't getting reparations as quickly?
they invaded the ruhr (a wealthy, industrialised area) to take the goods for themselves
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why did the occupation of the ruhr worsen hyperinflation?
the weimar government called a strike in the ruhr (so no more goods were made) but continued to pay wages to the ruhr workers so the country had less goods but needed to print more money
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who was gustav stresemann?
chancellor of germany (1923) and then foreign minister (1923 to his death in 1929)
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what was the dawes plan?
stesemann persuaded the allies to create manageable payments and to throw the french out of the ruhr. to help pay, germany was given short-term american loans
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what was potentially problematic about the dawes plan?
it included american loans which meant that german economy became reliant on america: if they had to repay, they'd collapse
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what was the rentenmark?
a new, temporary currency introduced by stresemann which was based on property; it was later converted to the reichenmark (based on gold)
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what was the young plan?
reduced the reparations from £6.6 billion to £1.85 billion and gave germany a longer time to pay
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what was the locarno pact (1925)?
agreement to keep existing german-french and german-belgium borders.
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why was is important?
it signified germany's return to the international stage and improved the allies relations
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what was the league of nations?
a peace organistaion which germany was allowed into in 1926
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why was it important?
germany regaining its world power status
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what was the kellogg-briand pact?
an agreement between 65 nations, signed in 1928, agreeing that the army would only be used for self-defense and disputes would be solved peacefully
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why was paul hindenberg significant?
he was a war leader who became president, thus dispelling the stab-in-the-back myth by showing that the army supported democracy
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what were the golden years?
1924-1929, germany had a stable government (an SPD - a centre-left party - coalition), a decline in extremism and political violence, and a surge in art and women's rights
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why were the golden years not as good as they seemed (unemployment)?
unemployment insurance, a great advancement, was only viable up to 800,000 unemployed which was exceeded many times. also, unemployment rose throughout the golden years.
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why were the golden years not as good as they seemed (women's rights)?
there were more freedoms for women but by 1933, there were still only 36 female judges and women were still expected to give up work. many traditionalists blamed women for the economic troubles and berated them for ''stealing men's roles''.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the amount of reparations germany was ordered to pay

Back

£6.6 billion

Card 3

Front

the area of land demilitarised

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

the group of countries - attempting to prevent another world war - germany was excluded from

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

the number of ww1 german deaths

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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