The Respiratory System

  • Created by: feyikemi5
  • Created on: 13-11-17 20:59
What is the respiratory system responsible for?
Inhalation and exhalation of air, for gaseous exchange, for metabolic processes, for the sense of smell and for production and articulation of sound into words
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What part of the respiratory system do cold and flu infections occur?
Upper respiratory tract
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How is the respiratory system split up?
The upper respiratory tract, the lungs & trachea and the mediastinum
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What structures make up the upper respiratory tract?
The nasal cavity, the pharynx, the tonsils and the larynx
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What does the nasal septum separate?
The two nostrils
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What are the conchae also known as?
Turbinate bones
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What are the spaces in between the conchae called?
Meatuses
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What are in the openings of the meatuses?
Paranasal sinuses
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What are the 4 paranasal sinuses?
Ethmoid, maxillary, frontal and sphenoid sinuses?
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Where can the paranasal sinuses be found?
The sides of the nose
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What are the three parts the nasal conchae and the meatuses split into?
Superior, middle and inferior
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Where is the sphenoethmoidal recess?
Where the sphenoidal sinus opens
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What are the three parts of the pharynx?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
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Where can the parts of the pharynx be found?
Nasopharynx - behind nose, Oropharynx - behind the mouth, Laryngopharynx - behind larynx
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What tube connects the nasopharynx to the ear?
Eustachian/auditory/pharyngotympanic tube
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What does the eustachian tube?
Drains fluid from the ear into the throat
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What are the three parts of the tonsils
Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids), palatine tonsils and lingual tonsils
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Where can the different tonsils be found?
Pharyngeal tonsils - behind nasopharynx, Palatine tonsils - behind the mouth, Lingual tonsil - back of tongue
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Where can the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal folds found?
The base of the tongue
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What is Waldeyer's ring?
An uninterrupted circle of protective lymphoid tissue at the upper ends of the respiratory and alimentary tracts
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What are the structures that make up Waleyer's ring?
Pharyngeal (adenoid) tonsil, Tubal tonsil (eustachian tube), Palatine tube, Lingual tonsil
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Where can the larynx be found?
The Adam's apple
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What is the Adam's apple made of?
Thyroid cartilage
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What is the larynx also known as?
The voice box
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What are the two types of vocal folds?
True and false
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What is the laryngeal inlet?
Opening that connects the pharynx and the larynx
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What is the epiglottis?
Flexible flap at the end of the larynx
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What does the epiglottis do?
It acts as a switch between the larynx and the esophagus to permit air to enter the airway to the lungs and food to pass into the gastrointestinal tract and also protects the body from choking on food that would normally obstruct the airway
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What are the two attachments of the larynx?
The hyoid bone and the trachea
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Where does the trachea bifurcate?
The carina
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What does the trachea bifurcate into and at what level is this?
The two primary bronchi and T4
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What are the rings of thr trachea made of?
Hyaline cartilage
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What structure lies posterior to the trachea?
The trachealis muscle
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What is the function of the trachealis muscle?
To constrict the trachea, allowing air to be expelled with more force, e.g., during coughing
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What is the difference in the angle the left and right primary bronchus bifurcate?
The left primary bronchus bifurcates at a greater angle than the right because of the presence of the heart
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What are the consequences of the right primary bronchus being shorter and wider than the left?
Anything that goes down the trachea is more likely to be stuck in the right primary bronchus
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What is the lobar bronchi?
The secondary division of the bronchi which supplies the lobes the lungs
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What is the segmental bronchi?
Tertiary division of the bronchi which supplies the bronchipulmonary segments
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How many lobes does the right and left lobe have?
Right lobe - three lobes (upper, middle and lower), Left lobe - two lobes (upper and lower)
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What are the fissures that separate the lobes of the lungs?
Oblique fissure (separates upper and lower lobes in left and middle and lower in right), horizontal lobe (separates middle and upper lobe in right lobe)
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What is the cardiac notch?
Indentation in the left lung where the heart sits
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What is the root of the lung and what happens there?
Section at the posterior centre of the lungs where the bronchi, pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein enter the lungs
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What is the hilum?
Depressed area at posterior centre of lungs
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What is the lingula?
Tongue shaped section of the left lung that covers the heart
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Where are lymph nodes in the lungs?
Anterior and inferior margins of the lungs
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If the anterior and inferior margins of the lungs are not sharp what does that mean?
There is a fluid build up in the lungs
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Where is the apex of the lungs?
The top of the lungs
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Why is the base of the lungs domed?
Because of the convex surface of the diaphragm
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Where is the diaphragm attached?
The vertebrae
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What does the diaphragm separate?
The thorax from the abdomen
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How many ribs are there?
12 pairs
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What are true ribs
Ribs attached to the sternum (2nd - 6th)
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What are false ribs?
Ribs that are attached to other ribs (8th -10th)
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What are floating ribs?
Ribs that are only attached to the vertebrae
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What is the pump handle movement?
An increase in AP diameter of the ribs
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What is the bucket handle movement?
An increase in transverse diameter of the ribs
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What effects do the external inercostal muscles have on the ribs?
On contraction then move the ribs up and out so the volume of the thorax increases
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What effects do the internal intercostal muscles have on the ribs?
On contraction they move the ribs down and in so the volume of the thorax decreases
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What else do the intercostal muscles do?
Stop the lungs from sucking or blowing through the intercostal spaces during respiration
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What is the pleural membrane?
A fine serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and envelopes the lungs
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What are the two layers of the pleura membrane?
Visceral and parietal
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What does the visceral layer do?
It is attached firmly to the lungs
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What does the parietal layer do?
It covers the whole of the thorax
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Where are the costomediastinal and costodiaphragmatic recess and what are there for?
They are spaces around the lungs and they allow the lung to expand fully during inspiration
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What is the thoracic cavity?
It is a space between the visceral and parietal layers kept moist by pleural fluid
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What happens if there is a build up of pleural fluid (pleural effusion)?
It limits expansion of lungs causing shortness of breath
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What is the mediastinum?
Where the heart is found
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What are the two parts of the mediastinum?
Superior and inferior
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What is the point where the mediastinum splits?
The angle of louis (part of sternum)
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What are the further divisions of the inferior mediastinum?
Anterior, middle and posterior
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What structures would you expect to find in the superior mediatsinum?
The great vessels
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What structures would you expect to find in the middle and posterior of inferior mediastinum?
The aorta
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What part of the respiratory system do cold and flu infections occur?

Back

Upper respiratory tract

Card 3

Front

How is the respiratory system split up?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What structures make up the upper respiratory tract?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the nasal septum separate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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