The nervous system

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What transmits impulses to the CNS?
Sensory neurones and receptors transmit the impulses.
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Where do autonomic neurones transmit impulses to?
Involuntary muscles and glands.
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What can the autonomic system be broken up into?
Parasympathetic and sympathetic neurones.
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Where do the somatic motor neurones transmit impulses to?
Transmit impulses to the voluntary muscles.
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What does the central nervous system consist of?
The brain and spinal cord.
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What types of matter is it made up o?
Grey matter and white matter.
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What is grey matter?
Billions of non-myelinated nerve cells.
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What is white matter?
Longer, myelinated axons and dendrons that carry impulses.
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What makes the long fibres appear white?
The myelin.
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Where do neurones in the peripheral nervous system carry impulses into and out of?
The CNS.
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Where do sensory impulses carry impulses from and to?
Carry from sensory receptors to the CNS.
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Where do motor neurones carry impulses from and to?
From the CNS to the effector.
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Describe the structure of nerves.
Many neurones bundled together and covered in connective tissue.
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Where do somatic motor neurones carry impulses from and and what control are they under?
Carry impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles under voluntary control.
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Where do autonomic motor neurones carry impulses from and to and what control are these under?
Carry impulses from CNS to cardiac muscle, to smooth muscle in gut and glands. Involuntary control.
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Are autonomic or somatic neurones myelinated?
Autonomic neurones are non-myelinated, somatic neurones are myelinated.
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What is the difference between autonomic connections to effectors and somatic connections to effectors?
Autonomic connections to effectors consist of at least 2 neurones. Somatic connections only consist of 1.
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Where do the 2 neurones connect?
At a ganglion (swelling).
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What can the autonomic nervous system be broken down into?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic.
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What are the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems often referred to as?
Antagonistic, because the action of one opposes the action of another.
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When is the parasympathetic system most active and what is the neurones transmitter?
Most active in sleep and relaxation. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter.
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When is the sympathetic system most active and what is its neurotransmitter?
Most active in stress. Noradrenaline secreted.
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Describe the pre and post-ganglionic axons in parasympathetic
Long pre-ganglionic, short post-ganglionic.
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Describe the pre and post-ganglionic axons in sympathetic
Short pre-ganglionic, long post-ganglionic.
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What effect does the action of parasympathetic have?
Decreases heart rate, pupils constrict, decreases ventilation rate, sexual arousal.
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What effect does the action of the sympathetic system have?
Increased heart rate, orgas.., pupils dilate, increased ventilation.
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How many pairs of cranial nerves do we have?
12 pairs.
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What are the 4 types of nerves found in the nervous system and how many are there of each?
Cervical (8 pairs), thoracic (12 pairs), lumbar (5 pairs), sacral (5 pairs).
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Which of autonomic and somatic is internal and external?
Autonomic = internal, somatic = external.
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Provide an example of what autonomic and somatic plays roles in?
Autonomic - organs, somatic - skin.
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How can the peripheral nervous system be divided?
Into the somatic and autonomic.
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How can the autonomic nervous system be divided?
Sub-divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic.
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Card 2

Front

Where do autonomic neurones transmit impulses to?

Back

Involuntary muscles and glands.

Card 3

Front

What can the autonomic system be broken up into?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where do the somatic motor neurones transmit impulses to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the central nervous system consist of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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