The Adrenal Glands

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Zona glomerulosa
The outer region of the adrenal cortex which secretes mineralocorticoids like aldosterone
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Zona fasciculata
The middle region of the adrenal cortex which secretes glucocorticoids like cortisol
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Zona reticularis
The inner region of the adrenal cortex which secretes androgens like DHEA and androstenedione
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CYP11B1
The main enzyme required to produce cortisol
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11BHSD2
The enzyme that converts cortisol to cortisone. It is unable to bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor, allowing aldosterone to bind instead
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Cortisol
The hormone controlled by CRH and ACTH - it is involved in immunosuppression, gluconeogenesis, protein catabolism, lipolysis. It binds to intracellular glucocorticoid receptors and glucocorticoid response elements
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ACTHR
The GPCR that ACTH binds to, activating the second messenger cAMP which: increases cholesterol transport into mitochondria, increases transcription of hydroxylases to form more CYP11B1 enzymes, increases LDL receptors, enlarges adrenal gland
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Aldosterone synthase
The enzyme that produces aldosterone
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Aldosterone
The mineralocorticoid which works to decrease K+ ions and increase Na+ ions. It is regulated by the renin-angiotensin system
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Renin-angiotensin
The system where renin is produced when ECF is low, which catalyses the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I and II. This binds to receptors on the cortex, producing aldosterone, increasing ECF
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Chromaffin
The cells that make up the adrenal medulla and are innervated by nerves
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Tyrosine
The AA from which catecholamines are produced. It is converted to L-DOPA by tyrosine hydroxylase (RLS), then to dopamine by DOPA carboxylase and then to noradrenaline by dopamine beta hydroxylase
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PNMT
The enzyme which converts noradrenaline to adrenaline. It becomes more active in the presence of cortisol (so adrenaline secretion can be increased by ACTH action)
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Beta
The adrenergic receptor to which adrenaline has a higher affinity for (adrenaline innervates the sympathetic nervous system)
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Cushings syndrome
A disease where excess cortisol is produced due to a pituitary tumour secreting ACTH, causing obesity, moonface, purple striae, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis. Treat with surgery for tumour or 11-hydroxylase inhibitors to prevent cortisol synthesis
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Addisons disease
A disease where there is a shortage of steroid hormones caused by an autoimmune attack of the adrenal glands, causing: increased ACTH, fatigue (hypoglycaemia), weight loss, skin pigmentation, ion imbalance. Treat with hydrocortisone or fludrocortison
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Conns syndrome
A disease also known as primary hyperaldosteronism where enlarged adrenal glands oversecrete cortisol and aldosterone, causing hypertension, alkalosis, hypokalemia, muscle weakness. Treat with surgery or spironolactone (mineralocorticoid antagonist)
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Secondary hyperaldosteronism
A disease caused by overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system. May be due to reduced blood flow, causing increased renin and increased aldosterone. Similar symptoms to primary hyperaldosteronism and treated the same way
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Phaeochromocytoma
A disease of the adrenal medulla caused by a tumour in the chromaffin cells, causing oversecretion of catecholamines. This results in very high bp, palpitations, sweating, anxiety. Treat with alpha blocker then beta blocker before surgery
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The middle region of the adrenal cortex which secretes glucocorticoids like cortisol

Back

Zona fasciculata

Card 3

Front

The inner region of the adrenal cortex which secretes androgens like DHEA and androstenedione

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The main enzyme required to produce cortisol

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The enzyme that converts cortisol to cortisone. It is unable to bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor, allowing aldosterone to bind instead

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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