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Properties of wool
Soft - Hardwearing - Crease resistant - Not strong
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Properties of silk
Expensive - Smooth - Drape - Strong - Cooling - Very absorbent
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Properties of cotton
Cheap - Strong - Cool - Creases - Absorbent
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Properties of linen
Strong esp when wet - Cool - Creases - Not elastic
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Natural Polymers (Regenerated Cellulosic) is mainly made into what?
Dresses
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Name the 3 Natural Polymers
Viscose, Tencel (Lyocell), Acetate
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Comment on Viscose's properties + dis/advantages
Prop: Silky appearance & feel - Breathable - Lightweight | Ad: Cheap - drapes | Dis: Wrinkles - Weak
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Comment on Tencel(Lyocell)'s properties + dis/advantages
Prop: Comfortable - Lasting - Shrink resistant - Durable - Colour rich | Ad: Easy to maintain launder - Good drape - Luxurious look - Sustainable - Wrinkle resistant - Biodegradable | Dis: Hand Wash - Dry cleaned
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Comment on Acetate's properties + dis/advantages
Prop: Silky - Luxurious look | Advantages - Crease resistant - Fast drying - Good Drape | Disadvantages - Weak - Dry cleaned - Does not absorb moisture
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What are synthetic polymers made from?
By-products of oil
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What are the properties of synthetic polymers?
Strong - Crease resistant - Not absorbent - melts when subjected to intense heat - Durable (3/5 stars for Acrylic)
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Name the four synthetic polymers and their unique functions
Polyester: makes cotton crease resistant when blended | Acrylic: Warm | Elastane (Lycra): Elastic | Polyamide (Nylon): Tough
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Name where the four synthetic polymers can be used
Polyester: Bed sheets | Acrylic: Jumpers | Elastane (Lycra): Swimming costumes | Polyamide (Nylon): Tights
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How can yarns be made?
Through spinning/twisting thread on a spinning wheel
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How are yarns made?
Fibre + twist = yarn
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How are ply yarns made?
yarn + twist = ply yarn
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What are staple/filament fibres and state one example for each.
Staple: Short fibres - Wool | Filament: Long fibres - (Silk, synthetic fibres)
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How can you make yarns chunkier?
They can be textured or bulked
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Name the three types of Ply yarn:
Peaked crimp effect - Rounded crimp effect - Bulked yarn
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What are fibre blends?
When fibres are mixed together before they are spun
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What do fibre blends improve?
Appearance, performance, aftercare, comfort, reduce cost
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What are mixtures?
When different yarns are woven into fabric
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Name three ways fabric can be made
Weaving, knitting, bonding/felting (for non-wovens)
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What machinery makes woven fabrics?
Looms
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What is a weft?
The yarn that runs perpendicular to the selvedge
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What is a warp?
The yarn that runs in the same direction as the selvedge (Up and down)
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What is a selvedge?
The sides of the fabric that is made by yarns that turn (Can fray)
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What is a bias (cross grain)?
Runs diagonally across the fabric
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Name the three types of woven fabric.
Plain, twill, and satin
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State the properties of plain-weave and where it is used
Prop: Strong - hardwearing - generally cheaper than more complicated weaves | Used in fashion and furnishing fabrics e.g. calico, muslin
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State the properties of twill-weave and where it is used
Prop: Strong - drapes well | Used for denim jackets, tweed, curtains
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State the properties of satin-weave and where it is used
Long float means fabric is smooth - lustrous surface - reverse side is dull and non-shiny | Found in satin
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Pile weaves have a raise surface of upright threads, the threads can be kept as loops or cut and has a nap, where is it found?
Towels, corduroy and velvet
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What are the properties of non-woven fabric?
Have no grain - not stretchy - do not fray - weak - permable
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Name two ways non-woven fabrics can be made.
Felting and bonding
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How is felted fabric made
Heat, moisture, and pressure mat the fibres together
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How is bonded fabric made
Heat glues (bonds) webs of synthetic fibres together
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What are the properties of felted fabric and give examples
No drape - no elasticity - warm - expensive | Wool is felted, it can be used for hats, slippers and in handcrafts
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What are the properties of felted fabric and give examples
Cheap to produce - crease resistant - easy to sew- stable when washed and dry cleaned | Mainly used for interling
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How are knitted fabrics made?
Made from yarn in a series of interlocking loops by hand or machine
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How is weft knitted made by machinery and state examples of weft knitted fabrics
Using flatbed or circular machines | Examples: Single/doubly jersey, rib
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How is warp knitted made by machinery and state examples of warp knitted fabrics
Using straight or circular machines | Examples: Polyester fleece, lock knit (terry), velour, lace and net
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What are the properties of knitted fabric?
Stretchy - Doesn't fray - Warmer than woven fabrics as loops trap air
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What are the purpose of modern and smart fibres?
They are designed to maximise characteristics such as lightness, breathability, waterproofing etc or to react to heat or light
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What does thermochromic paint respond to?
Temperature
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What does photochromic threads respond to?
Light
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State 4 modern synthetic fibres
Microfibre (woven polyester), Aramid (Kevler), Polartec fleece (brushed polyester and warp knitted) and nanomaterials
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Describe the properties of Microfibre and where it's used
Soft - good drape | Raincoats, active sport sportswear, fashion
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Describe the properties of Aramid and where it's used
Extremely hardwearing - 5 times stronger than steel - softened/stiffened using chemicals | Used in protective clothing - bullet proof vests as it's reflective
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Describe the properties of Polartec fleece and where it's used
Soft - warm | Used in fleece, jumpers, jackets and blankets
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Describe nanomaterials
tiny components with at least one measurement below 100 nm. Enhance other products to include new properties
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Properties of silk

Back

Expensive - Smooth - Drape - Strong - Cooling - Very absorbent

Card 3

Front

Properties of cotton

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Properties of linen

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Natural Polymers (Regenerated Cellulosic) is mainly made into what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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