Ethics and Validity

Ethics
Study of the standards for what are the right and wrong things to do
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Kant
Duty or right's based ethics
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Bentham
Outcome based Ethics
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What are the main 3 codes?
Harm to human pps must be avoided, informed consent, debriefing
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What are the three Rs?
Refinement (Reduction in severity of inhumane procedures), Reduction (Number of animals used), Replacement (Replace animals whether possible)
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Researchers may financially benefit from what?
Specific research outcomes
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Peer Reviewer
Wants to get research funded/publshed that is very similar to the one he/she assesses
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Peer reviewer has a personal relation to?
Author or applicant
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Examiner has personal relation to?
Examinee
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What is Internal Validity?
The extent to which the results obtained are a function of the variables that we systematically manipulated
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How do we maximise internal validity?
Rule of the possibility of other factors producing the change, must control everything and eliminate possible extraneous influences, easiest in highly controlled laboratory settings
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History Effects
Events occuring during the experiment that are not part of the treatment
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MAturation effect
Biological or psychological: Processes within pps that may change simply due to the passing of time
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Mortality
The differential loss of individuals from treatment and or control groups due to non- random reasons
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Instrument delay
Measuring devices change over time
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Participant selection
Different types of pps place at different levels of the IV
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Statistical regression to the mean
Going back to mean after extreme behaviour
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Diffusion of treatment effects
Occurs if the control group learns about the manipulation
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Compensatory Rivalry
When pps in different conditions start competing
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Compensatory Equalisation
What if the eperimenters know what condition their pps are in?
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Resentful demoralisation
If the control group learns that they are in the control group, they may become resentful and not try as hard (increase differences between treatment and control group
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What is external validity?
How the experiment can be generalised to other situations
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Ecological validity
The extent to which the results can be generalised from the set of environmental conditions in the experiment to other environmental conditions
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Population validity
The extent to which the results can be generalised from the experimental sample to a defined population
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Reactive effects of testing
Occurs whenever a pre-test increases or decreases the respondents’ sensitivity to the treatment
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Reactive effects of experimental arrangements
These can occur when the conditions of the study are such that the results are not likely to be replicated in non-experimental situations
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Selection treatment interaction
The possibility that some characteristic of the pps selected for the study interacts with some aspect of the treatment
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Multiple treatment interference
When pps receive more than one treatment, the effects of previous treatment may influence subsequent ones
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Replication
An additional scientific study that is conducted in exactly the same manner as the original research project
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Card 2

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Kant

Back

Duty or right's based ethics

Card 3

Front

Bentham

Back

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Card 4

Front

What are the main 3 codes?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What are the three Rs?

Back

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