1. What did the enlightenment mean for the Self?
- That self understanding was scientifically orientated, pushed for a more scientific understanding of the world and influenced by political change.
- The impossibility of complete self knowledge, the self emerges through conflict with unconscious forces which cannot be understood.
- The purpose of the self was religion orientated and an emphasis was placed on fulfillment of life on earth >the afterlife.
- The self was seen as an individual and autonomous entity, self reliance and individualism (capitalism) was emphasised and there was a shift from the communal self.
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2. What is an issue with Freud's theory of the Self?
- Not very empirical, there is an interplay of factors created without evidence to check credibility.
- His method for devising this theory was empirical but poorly controlled leading to an incorrect theory
- The categories that he states are incorrect
- There are no categories, but an interplay of factors
3. What was William James' view of the Self?
- The self = the soul (immaterial) which controls the 'machine' of the body through the pineal gland.
- There are 3 types of self, it's constituents (The material/spiritual self), the feelings and emotions they arouse (self-feelings e.g self-dissatisfaction/complacency) and self-actions, the actions to which they prompt e.g self-preservation
- The mediation of basic instincts and drives through the pineal gland which houses the 'essence' of the self
- The self as a reconciliation of unconcious forces that govern our behaviour.
4. What did a study by Kross et al (2013) find?
- Facebook use predicts declines in affect and life satisfaction over time
- Facebook use predicts increases in affect and life satisfaction over time
- There is no correlation between facebook use, affect or life staisfaction
5. In ontological development (human), at what stage in development is self-awareness apparent?
- Stage 4 approx 3 years
- Stage 1, approx 24 hours
- Stage 3, approx 2 years
- Stage 2, approx 2 months