TB5 Lecture 1; The Self and the Other

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  • Created by: mint75
  • Created on: 21-05-15 18:09

1. How is the independent self different from the interdependent self?

  • The independent self, a western perspective is autonomous and moves within groups, interdependent self is communal and is stable within different contexts
  • The interdependent self, a western perspective is autonomous and moves within groups, independent self is communal and is stable within different contexts
  • The independent self is a capitalist perspective and the interdependent a socialist one.
  • The interdependent self is a capitalist perspective and the independent a socialist one.
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2. What was William James' view of the Self?

  • The self = the soul (immaterial) which controls the 'machine' of the body through the pineal gland.
  • The self as a reconciliation of unconcious forces that govern our behaviour.
  • There are 3 types of self, it's constituents (The material/spiritual self), the feelings and emotions they arouse (self-feelings e.g self-dissatisfaction/complacency) and self-actions, the actions to which they prompt e.g self-preservation
  • The mediation of basic instincts and drives through the pineal gland which houses the 'essence' of the self

3. What is the main point(s) of the "Self as an illusion" argument?

  • The 'self' is purely physiological and is the combination and reconciliation of X drives.
  • The self is fiction and is used to give a narrative to random behaviour of humans.
  • We do not have a self at all, rather we have drives that are constrained by biology or societal norms. The 'self' is a post-hoc rationalisation of the chosen path
  • The self is outside the body and therefore does not materially exist, however it governs our drives and thoughts

4. What is Markus and Kityama's view on the self?

  • An interactionist perspective where evolutionary factors and the current culture and environment have an effect on the drives of a person and the Self's different levels.
  • The self arises and is continously modified through the agent's interaction with society, a dynamic process with different cross-cultural significance.
  • A cross-cultural perspective in which the self is modified through the agents interactions with different cultures.
  • A dynamic process in which the self arises, is changed by internalised societal values and becomes formalised into a discrete entity.

5. In the history of the self, what is Secularisation?

  • The impossibility of complete self knowledge, the self emerges through conflict with unconscious forces which cannot be understood.
  • That self understanding was scientifically orientated, pushed for a more scientific understanding of the world and influenced by political change.
  • The purpose of the self was religion orientated and an emphasis was placed on fulfillment of life on earth >the afterlife.
  • The self was seen as an individual and autonomous entity, self reliance and individualism (capitalism) was emphasised and there was a shift from the communal self.


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