stress; treatments

what are Benzodiazepines
a group of drugs,including valium. prescribed to treat anxiety. it works to enhance the neurotransmitter GABA.
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what is GABA
a neurotransmitter with a relaxing effect
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what is the effect of GABA
natural relaxant; calming/quieting affect on neurons. it causes less neural activity in the brain(inhibitory neurotransmitter)
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how does GABA effect neurons
binding with receptors on receiving neurons: causes a channel to open on the neuron that allows Cl ions to flow in. These ions make it harder for the neuron to be stimulated/excited by other NTs and less likely to fire. so person feels more relaxed
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what are beta blockers
group of drugs that work on reducing the effects of sympathetic arousal(SAM). they bind to beta-adrenergic receptors on the cells of the heart and other organs which are normally stimulated by adrenaline/noradrenaline.this blocks the effects of NTs
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what are the effects of beta blockers on the heart and blood vessels
heart; slows down and contract will less force. blood vessels: reducing their tendency to constrict
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why do beta blockers work
as the heart is under less physical stress the person will feel calmer. BB's reduce the physical effects of being in SAM
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evaluate drug therapy as a treatment for stress
side effects; BZ's hallucinations, depression and suicidal thoughts, drowsy(shouldn't drive). BB's; dizziness,light headedness, ability to store in LTM and increased risk of type II Diabetes
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evaluate drug therapy as a treatment for stress
addiction; when a person experiences withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking a drug. BZ's; even low doses can produce these symptoms. Ashton(2005); BZ's should only be prescribed upto 4 weeks
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evaluate drug therapy as a treatment for stress
"bandage approach":once the drugs stop the original source of stress the original source of stress may still be presents so the anxiety comes back. may be better to treat problem with psychological approach in SIT or Hardiness training
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evaluate research drug therapy as a treatment for stress
effectiveness; Kahn et al(1986) 250 p's over 8 weeks found that BZ's were better than a placebo at reducing anxiety. Hidalgo(2001); MA found that treatment of social anxiety with BZ's was more effective than antidepressants.
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evaluate research drug therapy as a treatment for stress
lockwood(1989); studied 2000+ musicians in major US symphonies and found 27% used BB's as they felt they played better and critics said their performances were better under the influence of BB's.
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evaluate drug therapy as a treatment for stress
ease of use; requires little effort from patient and is not time consuming(unlike SIT, which requires time and motivation). just popping a pill.
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describe Stress Inoculation Therapy(SIT) as a treatment of stress
developed by Meichenbaum in the 1970's and it incorporates the transactional model of stress(based on appraisal and copying behaviour) and the constructive narrative perspective(stories we construct about ourselves).
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describe stage 1 of SIT
conceptualisation; p builds a relationship with therapist. p learns the impacts and effects of stress(HPA,SAM). in stage 1, the global stressor will be broken down into smaller more specific parts and altering how we think about it-lazarus' prim. app
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describe stage 2 of SIT
skills acquisition phase; learn new skills(relaxation techniques),attention diversion,positive thinking, coping self statements,time management. these are behavioura(learning new behaviours through rewards-conditioning) + cognitive(changing thoughts)
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describe stage 3 of SIT
application; given opportunities to apply the newly learned coping skills in different situations, which become increasingly stressful. techniques include imagery, modelling,role-playing. follow up to discuss any failures or problems 2-3 months later
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evaluate SIT as a treatment of stress
effectiveness; sheehy and horan(2004) examined the effects of SIT on anxiety, stress and academic performance of 1st year law students. p's had 4 weekly sessions of SIT lasting 90 minutes. those receiving SIT displayed lower levels of anxiety
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stress over time, and those who were predicted to finish in the bottom 20% of their class significantly improved their rank
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evaluate SIT as a treatment of stress
time consuming and requires high motivation and money; including homework, this means more people will drop out or not follow up. not everybody has high motivation so does not match all personality types, therefore the problem may not be fixed
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evaluate SIT as a treatment of stress
complex; the effectiveness of SIT might be due to certain elements of it, rather than all of it, which could mean the range of activities and time needed could be reduced without losing any effectiveness. shorter time-> less dropouts-> more effective
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evaluate SIT as a treatment of stress
preparation for future stress-lt sol;this method does not only deal with stressors that exist at the time, it also gives the client skills and coping techniques for future stressors. the focus of skills acquisition provides long-lasting effectiveness
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what is biofeedback
a technique you can use to learn to control your bodily functions, such as heart rate. you're connected to electrical sensors that help you receive info(feedback)about your body
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what physiological activity can be monitored?
muscular tension-auditory tone, brain activity-video screen, sweating,heart rate/blood pressure-visual or auditory display indicating variations
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what happens in all cases of the machine?
the machine attached to the body gives visual or auditory feedback about a psychological response that we are normally unaware of. it makes unconscious function observable then opens the possibility for conscious control
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how does biofeedback work
budzaynski(1973); client becomes aware of their physiological response and how it can be adjusted in a desired direction. the client learns how to use techniques(e.g. through relaxation,deep breathing)to control the response.
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the client progressively practicrs the technique from the therapy room to the real world in increasing levels of stress. sometimes(especially with children)the biofeedback device can be incorporated into a game.
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why is biofeedback based on operant conditioning
"i will change the signal"-> change + physiological activity is enhanced and become controllable-> praise from therapist/winning a game -> strengthens behaviour
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describe research showing the effectiveness of biofeedback
davis(1986); used EMG feedback with breast cancer patients. 13 45 minute sessions held for 8 weeks learning deep breathing and relaxation. after 8 months, urinary cortisol and self-reported anxiety were significantly lower in these p's than at the
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start of the study than a control group who had no therapy,cortisol levels increased. BF stabilises HPA axis.
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describe research showing the effectiveness of biofeedback
lemaire(2011): trained medical doctors to use biofeedback. p's used it 3 times a day over a 28 days period and completed a questionnaire measuring how stressed they thought they were. the means scores for stress fell over the course of the study more
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the control group. IMPACT PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE. no actual significant change in psychological measurement of heart rate, BP and cortisol level.
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evaluate biofeedback as a treatment of stress
is it biofeedback or relaxation that does the trick?; bussone(1998) treated children suffering from tension headaches with either just relaxation, relaxation plus biofeedback(BART). in both groups frequency of headaches reduced by 55% after 3 months.
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BUT after 1 year and 3 years the BART group showed better improvements. suggests both are good but the combination is best.
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evaluate biofeedback as a treatment of stress
convenience: BF is now very easy and portable with the advent of smartwatches(easier + cheaper). but not all p's will enjoy this technological aspect ELDERLY (others will), effecting motivation...
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evaluate biofeedback as a treatment of stress
individual differences; BF requires some intellectual understanding of the link between behaviour and physiological functioning and how to later these. it also requires high levels of motivation and persistence.
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what is GABA


a neurotransmitter with a relaxing effect

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what is the effect of GABA


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how does GABA effect neurons


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what are beta blockers


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