Stress

The human response to stressors
1.Alarm reaction-individual defense system become active 2.Resistance- maximum adaptation, successful return to equilibrium 3.Exhaustion - when adaptive mechanism collapse
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When and who wrote the Demand-control model ?
Karasek 1979
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To what is related the demand in the demand-control model
1.The amount of work(and other factors such as time-pressure) 2.amount of mental and physical effort in the job and its difficulty
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What does the control include in the demand-control model ?
1.Skill discretion( the extent to which job allows the employee to use their skills 2.The decision latitude (the amount of control the employee has over the work situation)
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4 types of work - in the Karasek theory
1.passive job(low demand , low control 2.high-strain job (high demand , low control ) 3.low-strain job (low demands, high control ) 4.active job(high demands, high control)
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Flaws in the Demand-control model
1.Stress process is not that simple 2.Individuals differ
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Who and when wrote the Michigan model ?
Caplan et al. 1975
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Who and when wrote the Personal-environment fit model ?
French et al. 1982
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Michigan model and personal-environment fit model
1.The employee's skills, abillities and attitudes need to be matched to the demand of the work 2.Stress occurs when there is mismatch between the person and the job
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Flaws in Michigan model and personal-environment fit model
1.There are too many ways person to fit 2.Too complex 3.Difficult testing of the model
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Who and when wrote Vitamin model?
Warr 2009
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Vitamin model
Working conditions can have positive impact on the health, but high doses are harmful (such as pay,absent, control, demand)
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Who and when wrote Transactional model of stress
Lazarus and Folkman 1984
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Primary appraisal in Transactional model of stress
The individuals evaluate the extend to which situations threats to them or present them with opportunities for gain
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Secondary appraisal in Transactional model of stress
The person evaluate whether they can cope with situation( If they can, they will see the situation as a challenge not as a threat)
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Transactional model of stress
Together the Primary appraisal and Secondary appraisal are the basis of what the person choose to do in responce to the situation
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Cox and MacKey's transaction model of stress
If people fell their action was effective, they become less anxious and similar problems will be less stressful in the future. Some coping responces can be harmful - alcohol
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Effort-reward imbalance
Siegrists 1996. Negative emotions are experinced when an employee found their efforts are not reciprocated in term of money, esteem. People will work harder to gain the reward, but the stress wil arise and the quality of the work will decrease;
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What are the negative sides of Effort-reward imbalance ?
Self-esteem is in the hearth of the problem; Some managers cannot be so ethical and will use the hardworking; The sources of stress - promotions, career development
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Conservation of resources
Hofoll 1989. Employees are motivated to identify, protect and developed they resources and will experience stress when they are lost or there is the change of being lost
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Which are the valued resources in the Conservation of resources model
Conditions(senior role, good security) , personal resources and energies(time, skills) and social support
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What explain the Conservation of resources
What workers do in nonstresful situations - they gain resources; How workers might respond to changes in work- they can deal succesfully with new demands if they have resources
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Absenteeism
-indicator that a worker is experiencing serious problem; can be very costly to the employers - 3.6 billions per year; 40% of work days lost
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Reasons behind Absenteeism
1.Stress has negative impact on the health; 2.High demand and low control jobs can be a reason for mental health problems; 3.Poor working conditions - reduce the motivation and attend 4. Early retirement
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Karasek 1979

Back

When and who wrote the Demand-control model ?

Card 3

Front

1.The amount of work(and other factors such as time-pressure) 2.amount of mental and physical effort in the job and its difficulty

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1.Skill discretion( the extent to which job allows the employee to use their skills 2.The decision latitude (the amount of control the employee has over the work situation)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1.passive job(low demand , low control 2.high-strain job (high demand , low control ) 3.low-strain job (low demands, high control ) 4.active job(high demands, high control)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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