what is inflammation?
bodys response to insults (physical, metabolic etc) - messengers that recruit other activity in body - main duty is to attack/heal
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what is attack?
first responders and includes cytokines
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what are pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines?
held in balance by immune system to avoid excessive tissue damage and spill over to normal tissue
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what is cortisol?
bodys most potent anti-inflammatory hormone
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what is chronic inflammation?
when attack and heal occur simultaneously leading to tissue damage - which underpins most diseases related to info - e.g. diabetes
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what happens when we experience chronic stress?
leads to information and associated reduced immunity
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what doe the HPA axis do in chronic stress?
chronic stress leads to dysregulated production of cortisol (too much) - damaging receptors that normally turn off cortisol (glucocorticoid resistance - system turning off stress if broken) - have nothing to shut off pro-inflammatory cytokines
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what does cortisol also suppress?
lymphocytes - overkill of the helpful germ killing organisms so increases risk of infection to diseases
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what did cohen et al find in their flu study?
ppl who had high stress scores before received cold more likely to develop cold as less likely to fight virus
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what else does inflammatory process interact with?
stress is mediated by cognition, emotional processes, diet, sleep etc
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what is paediatric psychoneuroimmunology?
robust relationship of early exposure to stress and later health problems and causes inflammation/reduced immunity - childhood stress exposure predicts autoimmune disorders
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what did miller and chen (2010) find?
showed increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and progressive desensitization of the glucocorticoid receptor
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what did caserta et al 2008 find?
Parental psychiatric symptoms predicted increased levels of febrile illness and enhanced natural killer cell functioning
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what are pro-elevated cytokines related to?
anxiety, depression etc - dysfunctional way the body attacks itself increases risk of schizophrenia - if hospitalised for infection more likely to develop schiz
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what association is there of neurodevelopmental disorders and.....?
between immune dysfunction and neurodevelopmental disorders - specifically autism
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mothers higher levels of cytokines during pregnancy were at higher risk of what?
giving birth to children with schiz
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effect of neuroimmunology on OCD and Tourettes?
greater outcome than would be expected by chance for children developing these during exposure to infection
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what did miller and coles study on depression and exposure to stress find?
higher CRP and IL-6 linked to transition to depression - childhood adversity sets up formation of neuroimmune pipeline where signalling is amplified
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why is reactivity to stress important in interventions?
individual differences - emotion regulation (not being able to manage emotions correlated with mental health disorders) and role of cognitions regarding our social situations and how stressful they are to us
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what did Raio et al (2013) find in emotion regulation study?
acute stress impairs ability to cognitively regulate fear responses - when in state of stress our ability to regulate emotions is impaired
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how can we intervene?
do this without having to rely on cog control because children dont have this most of the time - solution = mindfulness
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what is mindfulness?
when stressed, believe every thought we have - everything is hopeless etc - CBT works with these thoughts to change them - shift attention onto things experiencing without being judgemental and reminded stressful experiences are transient/mean nothin
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how does mindfulness help anxiety?
it is essentially attention training - mindfulness shifts attention form mind lived in head to the real world
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does mindfulness work?
good at helping people with depression and anxiety - good effects for stress management/mental health - young children on brink of clinical condition benefit from mindfulness the most
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is mindfulness a form of emotion regulation/does it improve mental health?
it is distinct from ER strategies - associated with lower cross-sectional levels of depression, anxiety, rumination, & dysfunctional attidues and improves QofLife - greater dispositional mindfulness predicted greater recovery from symptoms
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what is attack?


first responders and includes cytokines

Card 3


what are pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines?


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Card 4


what is cortisol?


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Card 5


what is chronic inflammation?


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