STRATEGIES TO INCREASE WATER SUPPLY

Water diversion schemes
- Transfer water from areas of surplus to areas of deficit.
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Storage
- Rainfall can be stored in large tanks or trapped in reservoirs. - Reliable source of water all yr round.
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Water transfer
- Large-scale engineering projects that move water from a river that have surplus to a river that has water shortage. -Water usually transferred in canals+pipes.-Original river can be dredged to improve water flow.
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Dams and reservoirs - postives
- Dam across river traps large amount of water behind dam=reservoir.-Water surplus=reservoir filled.-Water deficit=water released=consistent flow of water in river all yr round.
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Dams and reservoirs - negatives
-Water transfer from reservoirs is usually along pipelines, but it can involve building tunnels, aqueducts+pumping stations=expensive to construct and maintain.-Can cause conflict-they flood agricultural land+can drown settlements(move+find new jobs)
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Desalination - what?
-Removal of salt from seawater so that it can be used.-Seawater can be heated to evaporate it+then condensed to collect the freshwater OR sea water can be passed through special membrane to remove the salt.
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When is desalination used in the UK?
- Mainly used during droughts, rather than being main source of water (e.g. London has desalination plant on banks of River Thames, can supply enough water for 400,000 homes during a water shortage).
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When is desalination used in wealthy desert countries?
- Often main source of clean, drinking water. - Dubai supplies 98.8% of its water through desalination. - Countries more dependent on desalination have developed efficient tech. (e.g. Dubai's new plant is 82% efficient (45% for plants in Europe).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Storage

Back

- Rainfall can be stored in large tanks or trapped in reservoirs. - Reliable source of water all yr round.

Card 3

Front

Water transfer

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Dams and reservoirs - postives

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Dams and reservoirs - negatives

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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