Sports Psychology

Combination of beliefs & feelings about objects, people or situations which predispose us to behaviour in a certain way towards them
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The Triadic Model
Beliefs, behavioural & emotions
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The Triadic Model - Beliefs
Formed through our past experiences, people who are significant to us influence our beliefs
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The Triadic Model - Behavioural
Is not always consistent with our attitude, it doesn't always translate to the behaviour we display
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The Triadic Model - Emotions
Emotions towards an attitude depend on past experiences, we associate emotions with particular situations
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How can attitudes be changed?
Persuasive communication & cognitive dissonance theory
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Persuasive Communication
To change a persons attitude in a positive way, it depends on the person doing the persuading, the quality of the message & the characteristics of who is being persuaded
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Cognitive Dissonance
The state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioural decisions & attitude change
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How is an attitude changed by cognitive dissonance?
The individual must experience 2 or more opposing beliefs
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A persons desire to succeed
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The level of somatic or cognitive stimulation that gets us ready to perform
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Extrinsic Motivation
Comes from an outside source, good for cognitive performers, e.g. money or praise
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Intrinsic Motivation
Comes from within the performer, participate for the love of sport, maintains participation for longer
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Drive Theory
Arousal & performance have a positive linear correlation, at high arousal the performer reverts to their dominant response, does not account for elite performers deteriorating under pressure
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Inverted U Theory
As arousal increases so does performance until optimum & then it decreases, doesn't account for the decrease in performance elite performers have once they have exceeded optimum arousal
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Catastrophe Theory
Multidimensional, as arousal increases so does performance until optimum at moderate arousal, the effects can be reversed by relaxation techniques
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A negative emotional state, predisposition to perceive environmental situations as threatening
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Trait Anxiety
Enduring in an individual, a predisposition to react to situations with caution
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State Anxiety
Triggered by threatening situations
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Competitive Anxiety
Worry experienced during and about competitive experiences
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Causes of Anxiety
Fear of failure, importance of winning, challenge, degree of personal significance
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Somatic Anxiety
Physiological activation, perception of physiological symptoms of increased anxiety, closely related to arousal levels
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Cognitive Anxiety
Emotional dimension of anxiety, our typical understanding of anxiety, perception of threat
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Factors influencing Competitive Anxiety
Individual differences, different type of anxiety, competitive trait anxiety & the competition process
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Individual Differences
The way people interact with situations
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Different types of Anxiety
People with high trait anxiety have high state anxiety in stressful situations, but other factors can cause high state anxiety
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Competitive Trait Anxiety
High A trait performers anxiety varies, they could be anxious in highly stressful situations but not all
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The Competition Process
Interaction with personality, competitive trait anxiety & the situation, it all affects behaviour & causes state anxiety
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The Sports Competition Anxiety Test
Self-report questionnaire, measures competitive trait anxiety, test tendencies to become anxious about competition, useful in predicting how anxious a performer will be in future competitions
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Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning
The zone is an emotional response that facilitates top performance & is often referred to as peak flow experience
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Low Zone of Optimal Functioning
Fine skills, e.g. darts & badminton
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Moderate Zone of Optimal Functioning
Team games, e.g. football & netball
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High Zone of Optimal Functioning
Gross skills, e.g. boxing & running
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Characteristics of Peak Performance
Movements are automatic, activity is effortless, relaxed, skill executed with confidence, enjoyment, control& focused
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Cue Utilisation
The ability to ignore irrelevant cues, keep focused & avoid distraction
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Any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means
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Aggression (reactive)
Motive is to harm injury on opponent, outside the rules of the game, detrimental to team performance & involves anger
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Assertion-Instrumental Aggression (channelled)
Action within the rules of the game, prime motive is successful execution of the skill, may cause harm, anger is not evident & controlled
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Causes of Aggression
Nature of the game, wide divisions between scores, previous experiences, referees decisions, hostile crowds & venue
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Instinct Theory (trait)
Aggression is genetically inherited, trait of violence lies within everyone, aggression energy is constantly building up & needs to be released
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Social Learning Theory
Aggression is not biologically innate but nurtured through environmental forces, it is learned through watching, becomes an accepted mode of behaviour if it is reinforced
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Frustration Aggression Hypothesis
It is instinctive to fulfil the need to release frustration, frustration is environmentally generated & aggression is the result, if aggressive act is successful then frustration is released & aggressor feels good
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Aggressive Cue Theory
Frustration results in an increased arousal level which leads to a state of readiness for aggression, if aggression is going to occur then certain stimuli must be present that act as cues for the athlete
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When will a group form?
When purpose, identity & communication are in place
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Group Cohesion
The extent to which a group sticks together in pursuit of a common goal
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Task Cohesion
The process in which individuals interact & work together to achieve the task objective
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Social Cohesion
The relationships within the group which are not directly focussing on the task
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How to develop team cohesion?
Shared goals, training sessions, identity, team meetings, team building games
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Stages of Formation
Forming, storming, norming & performing
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Leader makes all decisions, group members start to get to know each other, little agreement, no clear individual roles
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Leaders role changes to coaching, mutual group decisions are difficult, individuals try to establish themselves, cliques start to form
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Leadership may be shared, roles & responsibilities become clearer, decisions made through group agreement, stronger sense of unity
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Leader role is passive, team goals well established, team makes decisions against criteria from leader, team does not require instruction
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Steiner's Model
Actual Productivity = Potential Productivity - Faulty Processes
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Actual Productivity
The team performance at a given time during the game or event & refers to the extent of successful interaction
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Potential Productivity
The maximum capability of the group when cohesiveness is strongest
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Faulty Processes
Relates to the factors that can go wrong in a team, coordination losses & motivational losses
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Co-ordination Losses
Occur because the operational effectiveness of the group as a unit cannot be sustained, due to poor coordination & lack of leadership, Ringlemann effect
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Motivational Losses
Relate to an individual who suffers a reduction of motivation during performance cause the player to withdraw effort, social loafing
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What causes Social Loafing?
Perceived lack of effort of others, lack of a role, frustration, injury
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How to combat Social Loafing?
Punishment, set performance goals, give a role, mental rehearsal, vicarious experience
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Social Facilitation
The positive influences of others in a sporting situation which results in an increase in performance
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Social Inhibition
The negative influences of others in a sporting situation which results in a decrease in performance
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How to combat Social Inhibition
Block out the audience, methods of imagery, relaxation techniques, supportive team mates, allow spectators during training
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The patterns of thoughts & feelings & the way in which we interact with our environment & other people that make us a unique person
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Trait Theory
Personality is made up of a collection of stable emotional traits, the types are - stable, unstable, extrovert & introvert, the RAS can determine whether a person is inclined towards extroversion or introversion
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Narrow Band Theory
Anxiety is a negative emotional state that is associated with arousal, the types are - A & B
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Social Learning Theory
Individuals learn & adapt behaviour by observing others, more likely to copy behaviour of role models, learnt through experiences
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Interactional Theory
Personality is a combination of traits & environment, our traits interact with the environment which affects our personality, B = F(PE)
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Sceptical Group
The link between personality & sport is of little value
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Credulous Group
Some link between personality & sport performance
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