Sociology : Family : Changing Roles

Willmott and Young
Notes a gradual breakdown in the separation of gender roles. Their concept of the symmetrical family claimed marital roles were becoming similar. Symmetry describes a sense of balance between adult duties.
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Pahl and Gershuny
Both support the correlation between women working and incresed participation by men with domestic tasks.
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Coltrane and Ishii-Kuntz
Delayed childbirth caused husbands to do slightly more housework.
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Ramos
Married men and women end up working the same amount of hours per week when having a full time job, but when having a part time job working women have a higher work load.
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Changing role of women - Evaluation - Gershuny
Women have to reduce time spent on unpaid work when they spend more time on paid work. But men won't take up more of the housework, so it doesn't get done.
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Changing role of women - Evaluation - Oakley
Sharing of duties is still largely superficial in most families. Families are still largely patriarchal with men being the breadwinner and women dealing with household work.
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Changing role of women - Useful?
Shows how factors like women working, cohabitation and delaying childbirth tend to improve the role of women in society.
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Mansfield and Collard
Limited evidence of symmetry amongst younger couples. Over 3/4 of middle class husbands said they believed in marital equality but did little or no housework.
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Hochschild
Women have changing aspirations, coined the phrase double shift for breadwinning and domestic work. She found full time working women spend 3 hours a day doing housework whilst their husbands spent the equivalent of 17 minutes.
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Moorly
Women see the home as a place of work and men see it as a place of leisure. The term triple shift refers to the emotional work women offer on top of the economic and domestic work.
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Duncombe and Marsden
Interviewed 40 white couples who had been married 15 years and found women typically experienced what they termed as emotional loneliness. Also found that women felt emotionally deserted with partners leaving them to do all the emotional work.
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Venn et al 2008
Fourth shift refers to women going through the night, as women were more likely than their male partners to respond to their childs physical needs through the night.
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Evidence of undequal division of labour - Evaluation
Housework isn't the only way to measure marital equality like abuse and who makes thebig decisions on important issues. Men also experience a dual burden.
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Janet Carsten
Argues that our relationships create the individual and are highly significant. She call these 2 processes relationality twin processes whereby biology becomes less important in defining family relationships.
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Carol Smart
Sociologists should understand family life through peoples memories as they provide important information about family relationships and creating and reinforcing bonds.
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Delphy and Lennard
They argue that in heterosexual partnerships men still take on the dominant role. Real differential consumption exists with men having greater access to consumption than women.
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Personal relationships - Evaluation
Despite us having high expectatins of intimacy and closeness there is still high levels of domestic violence and your perception of your family structure changes as you get older.
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Personal relationships - Useful?
Shows us the relationships and the role of the individual and how that has shifted. Also consiers why the family has become unstable.
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Edgell
Decision making is unequal, with men making more important decisions and women left to make less important ones.
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Delphy
Real differential consumption exists between men and women in the family. Men having greater access to consumption and leisure than women. This increases as standard of living increases.
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Hardill et al
Found middle class women referred to husbands in major decisions. Men expected wives and children should be subordinate to their careers as they are the primary bread winner.
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Power and decision making - Evaluation - Pahl
Found optimistic signs of financial jointness being relatively common. Found greater variation in the power between male and femal partners.
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Power and decision making - Useful?
Considers the role of full time work and how that can explain inequality and decision and who ahs access to money freely. Also helps to consider how equality has shifted.
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Barter et al 2009
Argue that there has been an increase in physical and sexual violence amongst teenage relationships.
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Donovan et al 2006
Found domestic violence is a significant problem in same sex marriages. It is experienced in very similar ways by those in lesbian and gay relationships, men are more likely to experience it.
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Femminists
Relationships are inheritantly patriarchal and therefore domestic violence is inevitable.
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Domestic violence - Evaluation
Men are abused too and it is a big problem in same sex relationships so it can't be male dominance as it happens in relationships with two females.
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Domestic violence - Useful?
Considers the issue of equality and abuse in more current relationships. Also provides a greater picture of equality in relationships.
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Butler, Robinson and Scanlan
Found children were exerting an influence on family decision making. For most children it was mothers rather than fathers who were the most frequently consulted source of domestic authority.
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Doucet and Dunne 2000
They explore how heterosexual and lesbian mothers create new forms of mothering which attempts to challenge and ultimately break down patriarchal motherhood.
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Changes in parenting and childbearing -Evaluation - Phillips
Parents are losing their ability to regulate their childrens behaviour. The culture of discpline is breaking down because of liberal ideas and media and peerd becoming more influential.
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Changes in parenting and childbearing - Useful?
Can show how the family structure has changed, not just the parent relationship, the child relationship too.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Both support the correlation between women working and incresed participation by men with domestic tasks.

Back

Pahl and Gershuny

Card 3

Front

Delayed childbirth caused husbands to do slightly more housework.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Married men and women end up working the same amount of hours per week when having a full time job, but when having a part time job working women have a higher work load.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Women have to reduce time spent on unpaid work when they spend more time on paid work. But men won't take up more of the housework, so it doesn't get done.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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