sociology

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  • Functionalism
    • Durkheim
      • interested in how social order is possible
      • wanted to understand the problem of social solidarity
    • positivism
    • Society is viewed as a set of interrelated parts (family, education, work, mass media, religion) which contributes to the maintenance of society
    • Talcott parsons
      • Developed Durkheim's ideas
        • build mutual cooperation, unity and social goals
        • how the maintenance of social order is possible
        • Pattern variables - a cultural choice of action
          • Affectivity vs Affective neutrality
            • based on emotions, or is it neutral with regards to emotion
          • Specificity vs Diffuseness
            • A person has many role or one role
          • Universalistic vs particularistic
            • person is judged as an individual, personality, or judged in terms of achievement in society
          • Achievement vs performance
            • based on ascribed or achieved status
          • Self orientation   vs     Collective orientation
            • focus on self or group as a whole
      • 4 functional prerequisites - a basic need for society
        • Latency
          • pattern maintenance - keeping order, and tension management - managing conflict
        • Goal attainment
          • to establish clear aims
          • legitimate use of power
        • Adaption
          • need to change to changing circumstances in terms of resources
          • Economic production and manipulation of the environment
        • Integration
          • Refer to regulating and coordinating the people and the system
          • formal and informal control
      • Socialisation - mechanism through which society’s values are transmitted from one generation to the next
        • primary and secondary socialisation are agents of social control
  • family - parents and children, each role putting values and goals into action
    • establish norms
      • roles and goals establish a value consensus, which in turn provides the foundation for social order.
    • Being committed to sharing the same values helps establish a common identity.
      • Developed Durkheim's ideas
        • build mutual cooperation, unity and social goals
        • how the maintenance of social order is possible
        • Pattern variables - a cultural choice of action
          • Affectivity vs Affective neutrality
            • based on emotions, or is it neutral with regards to emotion
          • Specificity vs Diffuseness
            • A person has many role or one role
          • Universalistic vs particularistic
            • person is judged as an individual, personality, or judged in terms of achievement in society
          • Achievement vs performance
            • based on ascribed or achieved status
          • Self orientation   vs     Collective orientation
            • focus on self or group as a whole
    • institution of the family provides children with the correct value consensus to attend school helping the social system to continue functioning.

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