Sociology - Childhood

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What is childhood?
A socially defined age-status (social construct).
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What was childhood like in medieval times?
Children dressed like parents; Everyone worked; Everyone responsible; Houses not split up.
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What did Aries say about the pre-industrial society?
Childhood is a recent social invention - did not exist as kids were 'little adults'; Seen as economic assets = high death rate.
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What happened to childhood after industrialisation?
Attitudes changed - children needed protection from adult world & started getting an education.
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What were the 3 characteristics of childhood identified by Cunningham?
Opposite of adulthood; World of child; Adult world kept separate.
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What was the continuing problem with childhood in the 20th century?
Child prostitution & abuse was still common.
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What are the reasons for the development of modern childhood?
Laws (at least 16 to work); Education (2015 - RoSLA = 18); Industrialisation (not needed in workplace due to machines); Scientific/medical advancements (lower infant mortality).
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What did Postman say about the disappearance of childhood?
Children have access to the adult world (violent computer games); Loss of innocence (brought up in cynical world).
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What did Opie say to criticise Postman?
Children still play games, have rhymes & have dedicated media channels (separate spheres).
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What did Jenks say about the disappearance of childhood?
Not disappearing, just changing - family more fragmented & over-protection of children.
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What did Newman propose?
Childhood is extending - accordion family = boomerang children come back to family needing support.
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What does Palmer believe?
Modern society is creating a toxic childhood (inequalities & adult control).
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Why are there inequalities between nationalities in childhood?
Not all children share the same set of experiences.
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Why are there inequalities between genders in childhood?
Boys are more likely to be able to go out unaccompanied; Girls do more domestic labour.
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Why are there inequalities between ethnic groups in childhood?
Some ethnic groups (Asians) are stricter towards daughters; Izzat (family honour) could be a restriction of behaviour of girls.
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Why are there inequalities between class in childhood?
Poorer mothers are more likely to have children with delayed physical & intellectual development; Poor families = hyperactivity & higher infant mortality.
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What are the 5 reasons for a toxic childhood?
Controls over space; Controls over bodies; Controls over resources; Controls over time; Neglect & abuse.
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What did Gittins add to the reasons for a toxic childhood?
Age patriarchy - men have power to make decisions over children ("wait til your dad gets home").
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What has modern research said about childhood?
It has become 'adultist' - children aware of situations & are not passive victims.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was childhood like in medieval times?

Back

Children dressed like parents; Everyone worked; Everyone responsible; Houses not split up.

Card 3

Front

What did Aries say about the pre-industrial society?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happened to childhood after industrialisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the 3 characteristics of childhood identified by Cunningham?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

chloeegough

These are so helpful, thankyou so much!

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