AS SOCIOLOGY

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  Roles of adult men and adult women are much more “symmetrical”. More families where males/females have “joint conjugal roles” (domestic tasks being shared) and less families where males/females have “segregated conjugal roles” (domestic work done b
YOUNG and WILLMOTT TB P.95
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The nuclear family has ‘evolved’ from the extended family to fit in with the changes to society e.g. the establishment of the welfare state, industrialisation
PARSONS
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Men made most big decisions e.g. moving house, buying expensive items. Women made domestic decisions e.g. interior design, things for the children, food for meals. Some decisions jointly made e.g. holiday destinations. Many partners agreed that men m
PAHL (1989), EDGELL (1980), HUNT (1977) TB P.119
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  Males are ‘instrumental’. Females are ‘expressive’.
PARSONS
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Coined the phrase ‘lagged adaptation’ to describe the way men slowly adapted their lives when their partners started paid work.
GERSHUNY (1992) TB P.119
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In families with many disadvantages (e.g. single parents, disabled children…), grandparents are especially likely to provide emotional, practical and financial support
HILLMAN (2007), HASTINGS (1997) TB P.122 
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  Childhood is disappearing because children now have the same rights as adults and can access the adult world through the media.
POSTMAN (1994) TB P.115
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  In many cases men were just “helping” women so many men were neither taking responsibility nor doing as much work as their female partners. Most women saw domestic work as their job and got little help from their partner. Women doing a lot more ”in
OAKLEY / GAVRON TB P.119
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Men and women have biologically determined roles in the family
PARSONS   
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.   There have been many government policies and EU directives aimed at encouraging more women to work even if they have children
LEWIS (2012) TB P.105
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Domestic violence is still being used by males to exert power over females. Domestic violence a hidden problem – underreported and not being dealt with properly by the police.
DOBASH AND DOBASH (2000)   
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There are four main functions of the family: sexual, reproductive, educational and economic.
MURDOCH
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Families are ‘units of consumption’. In other words, they spend their money on the goods that are produced in a capitalist society and in doing so, help the rich stay rich
MARXISTS TB P.106
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The family is the ‘universal institution’, found in some form in nearly every society of the world.
MURDOCH
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Men are not good at expressing themselves emotionally – concentrated on their paid work – “emotionally distant”. Many women operating a “triple shift” – paid work, domestic work and “emotion work”. Emotion work is often not noticed by men – seen by w
DUNSCOMBE AND MARSDEN (1995) / WALLACE (1990) TB P.97
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The key feature of modern childhood is that it is seen as separate and special. So much so that many modern families lead ‘child-centred’ lifestyles
PILCHER (1995) TB P.115
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Women’s behaviour in the home is constrained by fear of men
HANMER (1983), SAUNDERS (1984) TB P.119
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Commonest form of money management is “husband-controlled pooling” – money is shared equally but husband controls the sharing process and has dominant role in determining spending. Husband-controlled system quite common (husband gives wife fixed sum
PAHL (1989)
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  Many families are based around strong female relationships e.g. mother and daughters.
  CHARLES, DAVIES AND HARRIS TB P.95
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Many children today are experiencing a “toxic childhood” because they are being neglected, malnourished and given access to inappropriate things e.g. adult TV programmes. This could lead to social problems including obesity and substance abuse.
PALMER (2006) TB P.116
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Professional women with demanding jobs are spending three times as long on domestic work as their male partners.
GARROD (2005)
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Carers of elderly people are most likely to be men and women in their forties and fifties.
BRYAN (2011) TB P.123
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Government policy should reinforce the traditional nuclear family and marriage e.g. lower benefits for single parents, tax breaks for married couples.
  NEW RIGHT SOCIOLOGISTS E.G. SAUNDERS, MARSLAND, MURRAY, LAWLOR (2012) TB P.108
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Many people now live in ‘families of choice’ which focus on emotional connection rather than blood or marriage
  . WESTON (1991)TB P.94 
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  The irreducible functions of the family are to stabilise adult personalities and socialise children
. PARSONS
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Parenting is now seen as a complex skill which people must learn in order to fulfil their duties as parents.
FUREDI (2008) TB P.116
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Marriage is no longer economically necessary for women so many are choosing not to marry.
  FLOUR AND BUCHANAN (2001) TB P.105
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Couples compete for control over children. Professional males are not entirely supportive of their partners’ careers – felt the women should be doing more domestic work. Professional males are threatened by females in the workplace and respond by try
  GATRELL (2006)
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The increase in divorce and cohabitation is connected to the decline in the influence of organised religion which teaches that people should marry and then stay married for life.
  WILSON (1966) TB P.109   
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Many men who do domestic work because their partner does paid work, do so because they feel they have to, not because they want to or feel they ought to.
  DEVINE (1992) TB P.119
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  Gender roles in the family are ‘socially constructed’ e.g. by canalisation and manipulation during childhood
OAKLEY
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Families have become more unstable and ‘fragmented’ as a result of technology.
GERGEN (1991)TB P.106
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  Childhood is socially constructed. Different societies attach different meanings to childhood. Children actively participate in creating childhood and ethnography is a useful way to study children/childhood.
JAMES AND PROUT (1997) TB P.115
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As marriage is now a matter of choice, many women who marry today have higher expectations of marriage than women in the past and if their expectations are not met, they are prepared to end the relationship
DREW (1998) TB P.105
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Women have less power in many families because males are usually the main breadwinners and money is seen as belonging to the person who earns it.
PLAYER (2013) TB P.96
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The supportive roles which used to be played by the family are often now played by friends
PAHL (2000) TB P.98
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Cohabitation, defined as a sexual but non-married partnership, is normal for modern British couples and most modern teenagers expect to cohabit with people they do not intend to marry.
  COAST (1999) TB P.110
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All the evidence suggests that families are becoming increasingly diverse
GILLIES (2003); JAMIESON (1998) TB P.103
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Women possess ‘****** capital’ and can control their male partners through their desire for sex.
HAKIM (1995) TB P.120
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  Living alone is seen as a mark of success in the contemporary UK
KLINENBURG (2012) TB P.111
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Children can take on both expressive and instrumental roles in families.
MAYALL (1994, 2002) TB P.115
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There has been a dramatic rise in the number of beanpole families in the contemporary UK.
BRANNEN
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Came up with the concept of ‘confluent love’ to describe modern relationships in which both partners must be emotionally fulfilled and happy (as opposed to ‘romantic love’).
GIDDENS TB P.120
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  Divorce is causing more people to value parent-child relationships more than adult partnerships.
SMART AND NEALE (1999) TB P.102
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Gay couples feel less pressure now than in the past to hide their relationships.
HEAPHY (2013) TB P.102
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Girls can be supportive to each other but can also exclude others from their social networks
HEY (1997) TB P.115 
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  The amount of change in families has been exaggerated. There has always been diversity but in the past people used to be more discreet because some family structures were seen as negative.
CROW (2002) TB P.103
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Women today are more likely to want to hold on to their jobs/careers as an insurance against relationship breakdown
ERMISCH (1996) TB P.105   
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Technological change e.g. the emergence of the internet, is a response to social need and keeps families and friends in contact even when there are large physical distances between them.
SILVA (2009) TB P.106
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There is significant evidence of continuing high rates of domestic abuse in Britain, based on the British Crime Survey
MIRRLEES-BLACK (1999) TB P.96
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People are choosing cohabitation over marriage because they are scared of divorce.
  MORGAN (2012) TB P.110
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Many modern cultural changes are being driven by the ‘cult of the individual’.
  DURKHEIM TB P.111
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Many boys struggle to discuss and manage emotions as a result of social pressure to be tough and ‘manly’.
FROSH (2002) TB P.115   
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Women are sometimes less committed to work than men and some women make a positive choice to be a homemaker rather than a paid worker
HAKIM (1995) TB P.120
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  Most modern families resemble the traditional nuclear family in many ways and could be referred to as ‘neo-conventional’ families
CHESTER (1985) TB P.124
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Families teach their children to accept inequality and know their place in society.
ALTHUSSER TB P.126
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  Working men feel they have power in families and are less likely to challenge their employers if they have family members that depend on them financially
  . ZARETSKY (1976) TB P.127 
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Modern family life is part of the ‘risk society’. This means a society in which tradition is less important and people have more opportunities to make their own choices and face the consequences whatever these may be.
BECK TB P.131   
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Women are the drivers of much family change because families are usually based around mothers and women now have more choices and opportunities.
STACEY (1998) TB P.132 
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

PARSONS

Back

The nuclear family has ‘evolved’ from the extended family to fit in with the changes to society e.g. the establishment of the welfare state, industrialisation

Card 3

Front

PAHL (1989), EDGELL (1980), HUNT (1977) TB P.119

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

PARSONS

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

GERSHUNY (1992) TB P.119

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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