Sociology

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Absolute Poverty
When people expirience absolute poverty when their income is insufficient to obtain the minimum needed to survive
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Achieved status
social positions that are earned on the basis of personal talents or individual merit.
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ageism
prejudice or discrimination based on age.
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ascribed status
social posistions that are fixed at birth and unchanging over tie includinga hereditary title linked to family background.
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Authority
the exercise of power based on consent or agreement
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Bourgeoisie
a term used by Karl Marx and others to refer to the capatalist or ruling class that owns the big buisnesses in capitalist society.
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Chivalry effect
the idea that female offenders are seen as deserving more lenient treatment within the criminal justice system and the impact of this on things like sentencing.
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Conflict approach
sees societyasbased on conflict, tensions and divisons between social groups, sch as between different social classes.
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Corporate crime
crimes committed byemployees on behalf of the company or organisation they work for.
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Crime
An illegal actwhich is punishable by law.
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Cultural Deprivation
This is said to happen when children's backgrounds do not provide them with the necessary cultural resorces.
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cycle of deprivation
the idea that deprivation and poverty are passed on form parents to their children.
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Discrimination
when a person treats someone else differently based on their beliefs.
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Deviance
behaviour which does not conform's society's norms and values and, if detected,is likely to lead to negative sanctions. Deviance can be-but is not necessarily illegal.
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Feminist Approach
examines the ways gender operates in society against the interests of women.
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Formal Social Control
control of people's behaviour based on written laws and rules. Formal social control is usually associated with the ways the state regulates and controls our behaviour. Agencies include- police officers, courts and prisons.
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Gender
social or cultural differences between men and women that are associated with masculinity andd femininity.
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Income
the flow of resources which individuals and households recieve over a pecific period of time. may be recieved in cash.
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Generalisations
General statements and conclusions that apply to the sample studied but also to the broader population.
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Informal social control
control of people's behaviour based on social processes such as the approval and disapproval of others.Informal social control is enforced via social pressure . The agencies of informal social control include peer groups and families.
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Labelling
the processof attaching a labelto individuals or groups.
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Life Chances
an individuals'schances of achieving positive or negative outcomes as they process through life.
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Life expectancy
the average number of yearsanewborn baby may be expected to live.
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Meritocracy
a system inwhich an individual social positionis achieved on the basis of their abilites and talents rather than on the basis of their socialorigins and background.
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Patriarchy
male power and dominance over women.
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Posistive sanctions
sanctions that rewardthose who behave according to the group's expectations,forexample through praise.
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Power
the ability of an individuaal or group to get what they want despite any opposition they may face from other people.
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Prejudice
a prejudgement in favou of,r against,a person, group or issue. Prejudice involves opinons and beliefs reather than action.
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Qualitive data
information presented in visual or verbal form, e.g as words or tables rather than numbers.
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Quantitative data
information presented in numerical form, e.g as graphs or tables of statistics.
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Relative Depriviation
this occurs when individuals or groups feel that they are badly off in relation to the living standards of their peers.
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Relative Poverty
People expirience relative poverty when they cannot afford to meet the general standard of living of most other people in their society.
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Reliability
this refers to consistency. research findings are reliable if the sae or consistant results are obtained a second time using the same methods.
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Role
the pattern of expected and acceptable behaviourof people who ocupy a particualr social position.
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Sample
a subgroup of the population selected for study.
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Scapegoat
an individual or groupthat is baled for the something that is not their fault.
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Self-fulfilling prophecy
this occurs when a teacher makes a prediction (prophecy) about a pupil's likely performance or poential that comes to be true.
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sexism
prejudice or discrimination based on gender.
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social class
a group of people sharing a similar economic position in terms of occupation, income and wealth.
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social exclusion
being shut out or excluded from partcipation in society's social, economic, political and cultural life.
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Social inequalities
the uneven distribution of resources or opportnities and outcomes related to.
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Social order
this occurs when society is stable, ordered and runs smoothly without continual distribution.
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Status
social positions in society.
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Stereotype
a fixed, standerised and distorted view of the characteristics of a particular group such as women.
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Sunculture
a social group which differsfrom the dominant or main culture in terms of it's members' values, beliefs, customs, language, dress, or diet.
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Underclass
this term has been used in different ways. it can refer to a group whos atttitudes and values are diffrent to those of mainstream society. it can also refer to people who expirience long-term poverty and who are unable to obtain a living.
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Unemployment
people expirience this whenthey do not have paid employment but are actively seeking work.
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Validity
this refers to truth or authenticity. Research findings are valid if they provide a true or authentic picture of what is being studied.
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Values
beliefs or ideas about which is desireable or worth striving for. Values such as privacy and respect for life provide generalguidlines for conduct.
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Wealth
ownership of assests such as property, land and works of art as well as moneyheldin savings accounts and shares in companies.
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white collar crime
crimes committedby people in relatively high status positions, such as accountants, doctors, or solicitors, during their work.
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Proletariat
a term used by Karl Marx and others to refer to the working class, the oppressed group in capatalist society.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

social positions that are earned on the basis of personal talents or individual merit.

Back

Achieved status

Card 3

Front

prejudice or discrimination based on age.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

social posistions that are fixed at birth and unchanging over tie includinga hereditary title linked to family background.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the exercise of power based on consent or agreement

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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