Family and identity
-learning identity and roles class, age, gender, etnicity, status is alll learnt
functions include: socialisation, social control, economic, emtional reproductive.
Studies - Anne Oakley gender socialisation.....manipulation (channeling into behavoiur, stereotyping through actiond etc) and canalisation (channelling into job, giving gender specific toys etc)
Family- traditional definitions
Traditional definitions of the family
the difference between a family and a household is KINSHIP - the obligation between family.
tradtional types are usually : nuclear - parents and dependent children. extended family... horizontal - parents aunts uncles children. vertical - parents children grandparents
Statistically : asians are more likely to be in an extended family whilst africanamericans are morelikely to be in a lone parent family.
Family- structural change
Structural Change in the family
1969 divorce reform act - allowed more divorce if 'irretrevable' breakdown of marriage could be proven.
divorce increased and is increasing (1/3 marriages) 1st marriage is decreasing whilst remarriage is increasing
boomarang family- children keep returning....due to divorce uni etc
bean pole family- living longer, but having less children
Changing Family Relationships
Conjugal roles- Oakley found they were segregated whereas Willmott/Young found them egalitarian....however both studies' reliability and validity were questionable. Hakim thought housewives saw their duties as a career. Marsden - Triple shift, women do work, housework, and childcare. Gershurney said that there was change (e.g. househusbands) but it was slow - Lagged adaptation. Doebash and Doebash did a study on the dark side of the family in aberdeen (battered wives). Other elements of the dark side include child abuse, and domestic abuse.
Education and Identity
The education system helps construct a persons identity by...
secondary socialisation, hidden curriculum, social control (and sanctions) norms and values learnt through school goals, the formal and hidden curriculum.
Socialises class, age, gender, ethnicity and status.
The Role of Education
To teach work skills, for secondary socialisation, for selecting/ creating the workforce, for keeping children 'off the streets' and safe, to prepare for the work place, for social integration with others,for role allocation, to teach obiedience.
to teach the formal curriculum (national)
to teach the informal curriculum (hidden) social control, gender socialisation, competition, obiedience.
(alternatives and current changes)
Alternatives to schools
Home schooling -----> taught by parents or a tutor
and free schools ---->St ursula's in bristol run by parents, sponsored by businesses.
Also, summerhill school, in which children choose what to learn, and control the school themselves
acadamies, good ofsted report needed, more financial and general control.
uni fees up form 3 to 9 grand
ema has been axed
Changes and their effects
1944-butler education act created the tripartite system -grammar schools, technical schools, and secondary modern schools. but 1965 - comprehensives created...tripartite system failed.
1988- national curriculum...formal curriculum was standardised....league tables and sats brought in... Ofsted - office for standards in education. prevents schools from failing and allows comparison, buut hawthorne effects what they see, and there is some bias over exam results.
education-patterns and trends
Patterns and Trends in educational achievment
Do schools provide equal oppurtunities? consider private schools, post code lottery and catchment areas.
Factors that affet acheivment:-labelling (gender class etc) *rosenthal and jacobson and self fulilling prophecy. *also the halo effect. -cultural capital *parents taking interest, educational trips etc. *parents having connections for jobs, work experience. -peer pressure and subcultures *paul willis learing to labour. these can be divided into 'home' factors and 'school' factors.
Media and Identity secondary socialisation - gender, Mcrobbie and jackie magazine, bedroom culture. social control-make an example out of criminals . moral panics - labelling and exageration. role models. eduaction. culture
Types of media
Broadcast ---> tv, radio Printed---> magazines, newspapers,books Electronic---> internet, mp3
the media contributes to globalisation by: -trade -through bias in the news -fast worldwide communication (social networking, email) -commercialisation and advertising -promoting capitalism
convergence - when media types combine. e.g. mobiles with satnav, music, photos.
The Content of the mass media
Affected by : - owners/shareholders (if they both own and control it)..their opinions, reputation etc. -Journalists opinions....Their news values. -Audience's opinion ...Pluralism states that they have purchasing power. -The law..through censorship, protecting names and identities, and through the official secrets act. -the advertisers opinions and/or reputation. - sponsors, particularly political.... -news diary
if asked a 24 mark question on who affects the content, remember rupert murdoch and the sacking of harold evans due to difference in political opinion, also consider marxist ideas that shows like 'who wants to be a millionaire?' promotes capitalism. pluralists believe ther is plurality and the audience have purchasign power. also consider the law.
continued News Values - ideas that journalists hold about what is considered newsworthy. *appeal to audience? *offend/affect others? *extraordinary? *opinions..... News diary- some articles will have already been written months in advance, or may have been started and are anticipating events. For example, articles about christmas may have been completed months before, and articles about the royal engagement wil have been prepared months in advance, only to be completed at the time. Moral Panics- a state of fear or panic over an issue of morality, usually surronding a social group, or 'folk devil', created or enhanced by the media. features include: -the blaming of a folk devil. -repition of stereotypes of the folk devil. -media coverage on the issue, before, during and after, with senationalised headlines. - law/police step up authority. this theory was created by stan cohen.
The Relationship between the media and it's audience Theories of the impact of the media : -hyperdermic syringe, direct and immediate impact, audience are 'injected' with opinions and thoughts, e.g. Bandura and the bobo doll. -two step flow, indirect effect, Katz & Latzerfeld said that the media influenced opinion leaders, who in turn influenced the rest of the public. -cultural effects, society accept stereotypes after constant bombardment, it is a marxist theory, & they think it is used to encourage capitalism, and portray working class as lazy, etc. -uses and gratification, minimal effect, pluralists think audience have purchasing power so they choose which media to use for their own gratification. -decoding approach, no effect, people interprit media differently to adhere with their views, depending on thier own identity. The Media create stereotypes by: -constant bombardment and repitition. -bias and slanting of the news. -selection of events. -exageration and sensationalised headlines
Definitions of crime and deviance Crime and deviance are relative - they depend on time, person, place, and society. For example, standing on a car during a charity event to rally people, may not be seen as criminal to the police, but standing on a car at 3am outside a nightclub, particularly if that person were drunk, probably would be seen as criminal. Historical deviance- smoking (and even drugs) was very fashionable 100 years ago, but now it is seen as a bit of a working class thing to do. Cross-cultural deviance- in tribes in africa public nudity is normal, and not thoought as wrong or wierd, but that is not the case here, in the western world. It depends on the Social context (the situation, and where, when etc.)
Delinquency/delinquent - a young criminal (or the ast of being a young criminal)
Controlling crime and deviance
Social control - formal -courts, police, prisons, schools - informal -religon -peers -workplace -media -schools -family
Are prisons effective- they do deter others, and rehabilitate and educate prisoners, whilst taking away freedom to try and deter them, BUT a master status is given to a criminal, which according to labelling theory creates a self-fulfilling prophecy, also, prisons can be seen as a 'university of crime' as criminals are surronded by other more experienced criminals to teach them more. also 80% of 18-21 year olds reoffend within 2 years, and there is free shelter, food and warmth which many criminals don't have at their homes.