Sociological Theories and Studies

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Robert Merton Strain Theory
Resources and opportunities are not fairly distributed. The bottom of society experience a strain between their goal and lack of resources to achieve this goal. Individuals respond to this strain in different ways, C.I.R.R.R.O.C
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Walter Miller Focal Concerns
W/C males have different values that lead to delinquency. Smartness, Trouble, Toughness, Autonomy, Fate
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Matza Subterranean values
There are no distinctive subcultural values. Everyone possesses criminal values but they come out at in certain times. We use techniques of neutralization to provide justification for our actions.
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Lea and Young
Certain groups revolve around 3 key concepts, Relative Deprivation, Left Realism, Marginalisation, Subculture
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Brake (1980)
Resistance to oppression, subcultures show the hatred they have towards capitalism through clothes language and attitude.
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Charles Murray The underclass
The underclass lack morals, no commitment to family, single mothers, dependency culture.
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Cloward and Ohlin Illegitimate opportunity structure
Blocked opportunities, they cannot achieve their goals a legitimate way so they turn to crime to achieve. 3 adaptions of this Criminal, Conflict and Retreatist
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Albert Cohen Status Frustration
W/C Boys are denied status in schools, parents cannot equip them. They leave school with little qualifications. They experience a form of anomie which causes them to form subcultures and commit crime
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Clarke Rational choice Theory
The desire to commit crime is based upon a rational calculation of likely consequences. If the reward outweighs the cost crime will occur.
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Hirschi Control Theories
People are rational in terms of their choices. People do not commit crime as they have 4 controls Attachment, Commitment, Involvement and Belief. Controls prevent people from turning to crime.
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Edwin Lemert Primary and Secondary deviance
Primary Deviance is insignificant deviant acts. Secondary deviance public labelled that have an impact on identity. 'Master Status'
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Differential Socialization
Males and females are socialised differently. Males are aggressive, females are passive. (Ann Oakley)
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Differential Controls
Females are generally more conformist as they have more controls that dictate their behaviour.
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Sue Lees
Females are controlled by fear of getting a bad reputation. e.g labelled a **** for being out late at night.
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McRobbie Bedroom Culture
Boys are more likely to socialise with friends outside the house whereas females social life revolves around their rooms.
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Heidonsohn
Women are more likely to be controlled by their roles as mothers and wives, they have little time for illegal opportunity
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Rational Choices Pat Carlen
Links to Hirschi's control theory/ Clarke. Females have a strong attachment to family life.Criminal women have no other option therefore it is a rational choice.
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Feminisation of Poverty
Women are increasingly more likely to experience poverty. Low pay, benefit cuts. Sandra Walklate shoplifting and prostitution are motivated by economic necessity to provide children with food or toys.
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Liberation Theory
Adler, as society becomes less patriarchal women's crime rates will rise. There will be greater opportunity to commit crime.
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Messerschmidt Hegemonic masculinity
There are certain goals that need to be achieved by men to become a real mam.
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Katz and Lyng Edgework
There is a seduction of crime.There is a thrill between getting caught and getting away with the crime that people find pleasure in.
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Waddington
CCTV footage of police officers and interviews about their stop and search activities. Ethnic minorities were in the wrong place at the wrong time.
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Phillips and Bowling Military style policing
Ethnic minorities are subject to unfair treatment by the police, They are more likely to be stopped and searched and their is over policing in areas that are dominated by ethnic minorities.
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Holdaway Canteen Culture
The police canteen is characterised with racist language and jokes. This racist culture will create stereotypes and impact the way in which police treat those from ethnic minority background
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Institutional Racism
The MacPherson Report into the death of Stephen Lawrence found that the London Metropolitan Police were institutionally racist.
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C Sharpe and T Budd
Black Youths have a lower offence rate than that of whites, but they are still more likely to be arrested or convicted.
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Hood
Black Youths have a lower offence rate than that of whites, but they are still more likely to be arrested or convicted.
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Cashmore
Uses the ideas of Merton. African Caribbeans are motivated by materialistic things but they cannot achieve them the legitimate way they therefore turn to crime.
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Stuart Hall
Neo-Marxist, the criminalisation of Black people has been happening since the 1970s, this initiated a moral panic, seeing ethnic minorities as criminals
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Gilroy
The crimes of Black people are a political response to the treatment that they have received historically
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Tony Sewell, Triple Quandary Theory
He identifies 3 risk factors that are responsible for high levels of crime within ethnic minority groups. They cannot relate to the mainstream, they are influenced by the medias emphasis on consumption, single parent families lack of role models
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Sumner, Reiner and Young - Chaos of reward
Money and celebrity are the main source of status. The people who have these are often undeserving. They believe that this adds to the frustration mentioned by Cohen.
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Paul Willis
Cohen does not explain why most working class do not commit crime and conform.
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Pitts and Kintrea
The acquistion of a hypermasculine status through the use of violence may be a major motivation for the behaviour of gang members.
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Howard Becker
Crime is socially constructed. The powerful decide what is criminal and the police act on behalf of the powerful.
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David Gordon
A Marxist thinker who believes that crime is a rational and realistic response to class inequality
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Shaw and McKay
Looked at areas in Chicago, they are organised into different zones. Zone 2 the zone of transition is characterised by poor housing, poverty and high levels of poverty.
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Edwin Sutherland - Differential association
Cultural behaviour is shaped by those around them. If people live in a socially disorganised area they frequently associate with people who make their living from crime.
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Hobbs Night time economy
Pubs and clubs are located in the city centre, people come from outside and start trouble.
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Baldwin and Bottoms- Tipping
Local people interpret their area. If law-abiding citizens think that their area is declining they will leave. This then leaves space for them to be replaced with the friends and families of the anti—social.
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Situational crime and Prevention
Right Realist approach aimed at reducing crime. Focuses on 'designing out', Target hardening. Increase the risk of getting caught so that people no longer wish to do it.
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Felson and Clarke
Instead of reducing crime it simply displaces crime.
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Jan M Chaiken
The crackdown on subway robberies simply displaced crime to streets above.
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Environmental crime prevention
Influenced by James Q Wilson, crime is caused by incivilities. If behaviours are tolerated they will continue, there needs to be zero tolerance.
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Social and Community crime prevention
Left Realist response, politicians need to address the economic and social conditions, poverty, employment, poor housing, low pay and racial discrimination.
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Retributive justice
Having a punishment that is fitting to the crime. Perpetrators should be excluded from society.
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John Braithwaite
Encourages offenders to take responsibility of their actions. They must apologise to victims and give something back to the community.It also involves labelling the act as deviant not the person to avoid self fulfilling prophescy
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Garland Culture of control
Governments identify particular social groups that may pose a threat in terms of crime by intervening at an early age.
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Restorative justice
Encourages offenders to take responsibility of their actions. They must apologise to victims and give something back to the community.It also involves labelling the act as deviant not the person to avoid self fulfilling prophescy
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Feeley and Simon Acturalism
Instead of helping i can cause these groups to be targeted. They experience over policing.
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Card 2

Front

W/C males have different values that lead to delinquency. Smartness, Trouble, Toughness, Autonomy, Fate

Back

Walter Miller Focal Concerns

Card 3

Front

There are no distinctive subcultural values. Everyone possesses criminal values but they come out at in certain times. We use techniques of neutralization to provide justification for our actions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Certain groups revolve around 3 key concepts, Relative Deprivation, Left Realism, Marginalisation, Subculture

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Resistance to oppression, subcultures show the hatred they have towards capitalism through clothes language and attitude.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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