Sociology

All key sociologists for AQA A2 Crime and Deviance. 

Durkheim 1895
Functionalist approach to to deviance. Durkhiem suggests that everybody in society shares a set of core values which he called the 'collective conscience'. Durkheim found to sides of crime a positive side and a negative side.
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Merton
Crime and deviance were evidence of a strain between the socially accepted goals of society and the approved ways of obtaining them, the resulting strain leads to deviance.
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A.K Cohen 1955
Lower class boys strove to emulate middle class values but lacked legitimate means of achieving it. This leads to status frustration, resulting in them rejecting values that are acceptable and finding illegitimate ways to succeed.
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Cloward and Ohlin 1960
Argues there is a parallel illegitimate opportunity structure that allows those who cannot succeed by apporved means can achieve. There are three subcultures; criminal, conflict and retreatist.
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Marx
All laws benefit the ruling class, and all law introduced benefits them.
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Chambliss 1975
The ruling class has the power to prevent the introduction of laws that would threaten their interests
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Snider 1993
Legislation regulating large companies is restricted in large capitalist societies as it could threaten the ruling class interests.
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Taylor et al
Agrees that traditional marxism is too deterministic and aimed to create a fully social theory of deviance. He takes a voluntaristic view seeing crime as a conscious choice.
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Walton and Young
New Criminology- argued that criminals were not passive, but deliberately chose to commit crime as an act against capitalism.
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Becker 1963
Social groups create deviance by making rules that are deviant, a deviant is simply someone who the label has been successfully applied.
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Cicourel 1968
Officers typifications lead them to concentrate on certain types of people. Other aspects of the criminal justice system reinforce a bias like the probation officers.
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Edwin Lemert 1951
Distinguishes between primary and secondary deviance. Primary deviance refers to deviant act that hasnt been labelled, secondary deviance refers to the person being labelled as deviant and them reacting hostile towards it.
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Stanley Cohen 1972
He studied societies reaction to deviance arguing that the media create a moral panic, causing people to commit more crime, thus creating an upward spiral of deviance amplification.
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John Braithwaite 1989
Identifies a positive role for labelling. Finding disintergative shaming- the crime and the criminal is deviant,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Crime and deviance were evidence of a strain between the socially accepted goals of society and the approved ways of obtaining them, the resulting strain leads to deviance.

Back

Merton

Card 3

Front

Lower class boys strove to emulate middle class values but lacked legitimate means of achieving it. This leads to status frustration, resulting in them rejecting values that are acceptable and finding illegitimate ways to succeed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Argues there is a parallel illegitimate opportunity structure that allows those who cannot succeed by apporved means can achieve. There are three subcultures; criminal, conflict and retreatist.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

All laws benefit the ruling class, and all law introduced benefits them.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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