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Aspects affected during sleep
Alertness, temperature, growth hormone, cortisol (HPA axis activation), urine potassium
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How many REM and non-rem cycles in a sleep period (7 hours)
5 - 7, getting gradually longer
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4 stages of non-REM sleep
awake, relaxed, light sleep, deep sleep
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If your EEG shows thelta 4-8 hz, what state are you in?
Light sleep
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What is the EEG reading for deep sleep?
Delta 1-4 hz
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Temperature changes in REM sleep
Brain increase, reduced body temperature
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How does neuronal activity differ in REM sleep and awake
It doesnt!
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Suggested physiological purposes for sleep
Metabolic reconstruction - restory glycogen levels for energy, replenish NT stores, clear unwanted metabolic products. neuroplasticity - synaptic connections, repair and restoration - tissue repair, immune regulation
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Mental consequences of sleep loss
Reduced motor control, paranoia, hallucinations, learning and memory deficits
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Physical consquences of sleep loss
Increase metabolic rate, reduced immune function, weight changes
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Thalamic activity in wakefullness
depolarisation, high frequency tonic activity that drives desyncronised activity - beta gamma waves
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Thalamic activity in sleep
hyperpolarisation - phasic bursts that drive low frequency syncronised delta activity
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Important direct inputs to the cortex to maintain wakefullness`
basal forebrain nuclei, hypothalamic nuclei, upper brainstem nuclei - DRn, LC, Monoamine transmitters. Especially from the reticular formation
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Indirect exitatory input to the cortex
Reticular formation acticates Na and Ach thalamic neurons that project to the cortex
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Two hypothalamic nuclei involved in sleep-wake transition
LNH, PNH - high aRAS acitivy. VLPO - inbits aRAS activity
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How does the suprachiasmatic nucleus generate a circandian rhythm
Not sure - possibly by modulating the monoaminergic input from the upper brain stem
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What is the role of the tuberomammillary nucleus
contains histaminergic neurons that send excitatory projections to aRAS structures - and inhbitis VLPO neurons. promotes wakefulness
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Role of adenosine?
Accumulates in the brain in wakefullness and excites VLPO neurons
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Why do we get paralysis in REM sleep?
The REM-on neurons in pontine tegmentum activates the thalamus and cholinergic basal forebrain arousal system - this activates the cortex and inhibits motor output.
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The role of Orexins in the rem non-rem transition
Negatively regulate the REM-on state, positively regulate the REM off state
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What is the functional deficit in narcolepsy?
Good evidence for orexin signalling deficit from the lateral hypothalamic nucleus. Might be autoimmune
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What is REM sleep behaviour disorder?
Failure to suppress motor movements during REM sleep - verbalise and move dream sequences
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Delayed Sleep phase disorder
Disassociation of sleep cycle with circadian rhythm. Dementia. Light therapy, melatonin. Blind people
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Commonest class of hypnotics
postive allosteric modulators of the GABAa receptor.
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How do GABAa PAMs work?
binding to an allosteric site on the GABAa receptor, increaseing the affinity of the receptor for GABA so Cl- channels open more readily
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Examples of GABAa PAMs
Benzodiazapines such as Diazapam, nitrazepam, or Zolpidem
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What is the action of the hypnotic promethazine?
H1 antagonist
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Mechanism of action of stimulants
inhibit uptake of monoamines by the VMATs, NET, and DAT, and SERT. Reverse them so they release the monoamines and activate aRAS
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Two major theraputic stimulants
Methamphetamines, methylphenidate (ritalin)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How many REM and non-rem cycles in a sleep period (7 hours)


5 - 7, getting gradually longer

Card 3


4 stages of non-REM sleep


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Card 4


If your EEG shows thelta 4-8 hz, what state are you in?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the EEG reading for deep sleep?


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