EEG, memory and Blood pressure, myelin

  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 21-05-17 08:03
what wave shows high intermittent bursts of 30-80Hz in the sensory and motor cortex?
1 of 173
what is the range of frequency for theta waves?
2 of 173
what is the role of Non-rem sleep?
restorative, without breakdwon homeostatic mechanisms
3 of 173
how much blood is in the body?
4 of 173
how much filtrate is produced per day?
5 of 173
what is the range of field potentials on the EEG? remember units!
6 of 173
whats good about the EEG?
good temporal resolution, cheap and non invasive
7 of 173
what does MEG measure?
electric current
8 of 173
which one do you have yoyr eyes closed and are relaxed for, beta alpha?
9 of 173
what is the role of gamma waves?
normal awake eyes open intermittent bursts in sensory+motor regions, multiple pathways related to a common experience (all modalities?)
10 of 173
where did the wave origin come from
cortico-thalamic oscillations feedback between the cortex and thalamus, they measure electrical activity deep in the cortex
11 of 173
what is a kappa, alha like wave for?
auditory cortex
12 of 173
which waves have mirror neurons and are possibly trainable for computer interfacing?
mu, (alpha like waves)
13 of 173
where are mu waves found?
sensorimotor cortex
14 of 173
what are theta waves described as, past and recent?
frustrated adults, children, brain tumours and more recently: spatial memory tasks, hippocampal theta rhythm in memory
15 of 173
when are sleep waves established in gestation? when do they appear?
established by 30 weeks but appear at 24 weeks
16 of 173
what are the stages of non rem sleep?
1) alpha rhythm slows drowsy 2) sleep spindles appear light sleep 3) no slieep spindles into 4) delta waves, heavy sleep high amplitude low frequency less that 4Hz
17 of 173
what evidence is there that the body is still active in stage 4 delta deep sleep?
sleep walking, sleep talking
18 of 173
what animals have rem (dream) sleep?
mammals and young birds
19 of 173
what wave is non-rem sleep seem to be likje?
like beta rhythm
20 of 173
What happens to REM sleep as you get older?
it reduces
21 of 173
what is thought to be important about REM sleep?
laying down of memory
22 of 173
what animal sleeps with one half of itsbrain at a time?
23 of 173
what NT are important in the brain stem regions in the reticular activating system for sleep?
acetylcholine, adrenaline, seotonin and gaba
24 of 173
a build up of what promotes sleep?
25 of 173
where is the body clock? what is it called?
the suprachiasmiatic nucleus in the hypothalamus
26 of 173
what does the suprachiasmatic nucleus secre?
27 of 173
where does the hypothalamus/suprachiasmatic nucleus project to?
the brain stem
28 of 173
what is reduced in catapley
29 of 173
what influences the amount of melatonin released from the pineal gland?
light levels by melanospin ganglion cells
30 of 173
what 2 processes is sleep a balance of?
process C- circadian rhythm and process S- sleep debt
31 of 173
what changes throughout the day in the pineal gland?
serotonin during the day, less light -> more melatonin -> sleep promotion
32 of 173
what loops do you get when you're awake?
cholinergic aminergic loops
33 of 173
what role in sleep does the basal forebrain have?
regulates awareness and sleep
34 of 173
what neurotransmitters are about when you're awake?
serotonin, noradrenaline and acetylcholine
35 of 173
what can indicate brainstem damage?
loss of pupillary reflex or blink reflex
36 of 173
what happens to the EEG trace if you get brain death?
may not detect subcortical activity
37 of 173
how much of the dry weight of weight matter is myelin?
38 of 173
what is myelin?
a lipid rich living insulating sheath
39 of 173
what is the main role of myelin?
to insulate the neuron and increase the conduction velocity
40 of 173
what makes myelin in the CNS
41 of 173
what do schwann cells myelinate?
individual axons, they may surround all axons but not myelinate in the PNS
42 of 173
what cell type outumbers any in the brain?
cerebellar granule cells
43 of 173
what is the major period (dense line)?
linked internal proteins
44 of 173
how does oligos do myelinaton?
send out proceses and wrap around different processes
45 of 173
why do you get dark and light band in myelin?
because of the way it forms the cytoplasm gets very thin so theres no distance between the cyto + M so they can fuse
46 of 173
what line does linked external proteins give?
Intraperiod line (faint)
47 of 173
what is the periocitity in the PNS?
48 of 173
what is periocity?
set distance between major dense line and intraperiod faint line
49 of 173
how much of myelin is dry lipid?
50 of 173
what are cerebrosides?
any group of complex lipids found in the sheath
51 of 173
what happens if you get a KO wih cerebrosides?
myelin forms but with vacuoles, paralysis seen in aged animals
52 of 173
what does CNS myelin have more of?
53 of 173
what does the PNS have less of?
cerbroside and sulfatide
54 of 173
2 major proteins in CNS myeline?
myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein
55 of 173
what is the milder phenotype in PLP KO mice?
56 of 173
what is the full phenotype for the natural mutation in PLP?
jimpy mouse
57 of 173
what happens to jimpy mouse when they lose their PLP?
little myelin, die early, severe loss of oligos, plp produced is toxic
58 of 173
what does MBP induce?
experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
59 of 173
what is experimental allergic encephalomyelitis a mdoel for?
multiple sclerosis
60 of 173
what kind of mice do you get with a loss of MBP?
shiverer mice- they die early
61 of 173
what enzymes are found in CNS myelin?
cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, proteases, lipid metabolism, carbonic anhydrase
62 of 173
what Ig-like molecules are found in CNS myelin proteins?
MOG and MAG, oligo-axon communication
63 of 173
MOG and MAG stand for?
MOG: membrane only glycoprotein MAG: membrane associtaed glycoprotein
64 of 173
how much of PNS myelin protein is P0?
65 of 173
what knockout gives charot marie tooth syndrombe 1b?
p0 protein in pns myelin
66 of 173
what is P0 protein for?
adhesion molecules, compaction- makes more dense, promotes sticking together of shcwann cell membranes
67 of 173
what protein is less importnat in PNS myelin?
myelin basic protein
68 of 173
a mutation in what gives charot marie tooth syndrome 1a?
69 of 173
what happens to the heterozygous mutaion of PMP22?
myelin not attached at nodes, changes loops
70 of 173
what is the homozygous mutation of PMP-22 conseques?
lethal no adults
71 of 173
when is the onset of MS?
72 of 173
where is the myelin particularly vunerable in MS?
perivenricular white matter, anywhere theres spaces
73 of 173
what kind of emyelination is in MS?
primary demyelination (Axon sparring)
74 of 173
what do you see on an MRI for MS?
75 of 173
what was the concordance reate for MS MZ twins?
76 of 173
who is MS more common in?
caucasians (f-1.5: M-1)
77 of 173
clusters/migration studies and geographical distrubition suggests what may be involved in MS?
vitamin D
78 of 173
what elese can trigger MS?
virally induced conditions such as herpes
79 of 173
what is charot marie tooth disease?
inherited conditions that damage peripheral nerves
80 of 173
what are linkage studies looking at in MS?
look for gene variance it may be associated with the immune system (immunological factors)
81 of 173
what is the autoimmune response in MS?
generally accepted as theres a clear inflammatory response, no evidence for autoantigen, macrophageproteases degrade myelin
82 of 173
what therapy can be given for MS?
steroids, interferons (intefere with immune reponse) , immune supressants(antibodies+cyclophosphamide), haemopoietic stem cels, dietary Vitamin D
83 of 173
what immune supressant antibodies can be given for MS?
84 of 173
what is guillan barre syndrome caused by?
post viral/bacteria infecton- campylobacter jejuni, acute inflammatory response, primary demyelination
85 of 173
what is the molecular mimicry in guillan barre syndrome?
Lipopolysacchire in bacteria wall and myelin lipids/proteins
86 of 173
what can be used to treat high bp?
diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, propanol (beta blocker) , prazoosin, nitroglyceride
87 of 173
how does prazosin work?
angiotensin receptor blockers, sympa antagonist at alpha 1 receptors- decreases TPR by vasodilating
88 of 173
what bp drug is used to decrease CO by decreasing SV and heart rate?
atenolol- reduce rate and volume, by B1 sympa antagonsit, calicum channel blockers- verapamil (reduces force of contraction)
89 of 173
what calcium channel blocker is there?
90 of 173
what is a sympa antagonist at B1 recps?
atenolol (volume and rate)
91 of 173
what sympa antagonist at alpha 1 receptor decrease TPR by vasodilating?
prazosin (sympa A1 antagonist rec- blocs angiotensin rec)
92 of 173
what is used to make raise bp?
agiotensin 2, phenyephrine, dobutamine, digatilis
93 of 173
what works by reducing Acetylcholine release from the vagus nerve andis a Na/K pump inhibitor that will then exhcanh=ge Na for Ca + imporcve contractibility?
94 of 173
what does digitalis increase?
cardiac output (increased by SV or rate)
95 of 173
what is the sympa agonist at A1 to increase bp?
96 of 173
what is the B1s ysmpa agonist to raise bp by increasing frate + volume?
97 of 173
what does the angiotensin do to bp?
increases it- vasoconstriciting increases total peripheral reesistance
98 of 173
what is the MABP?
1/3 PP + diastolic pressure
99 of 173
how do you work out the pulse pressure?
100 of 173
what equation is used to work out MABP in relation to BP?
101 of 173
short term control of bp?
102 of 173
long term control of bp?
blood volume- angiotensin system
103 of 173
how do you measure arterial bp?
cuff inflated above systolic pressure, pressure relased, first soud (loud tapping) = systolic pressure, release until muffling- UK or silence- US for diastolic
104 of 173
in measuring arterial blood presure you're listening for sounds in what artery?
brachial artery
105 of 173
how much blood is ejected at 70bpm?
7bpm @ 70ml
106 of 173
what is the cardiac output usually?
107 of 173
whatis systolic pressure mainly affected by?
stroke volume and ejection velcoty (SV + EV)
108 of 173
the diastolic pressure is mainly affected by total peripheral resistance but the resistance mostly from what?
mostly arteriole reisstance
109 of 173
what is an example of baroreceptor control?
orthostasis-standing up
110 of 173
to raise bp in orthostasis what does the reflex do?
sympa outflow to heart inrease, sympa increases heart rate and contraction forces o CO goes up, sympa flow to bvs causes constriction so resistance increased bp increased
111 of 173
what is the systolic pulse pressure?
112 of 173
what is the systemic bp?
113 of 173
what is the pulmonary bp?
114 of 173
what thepulmonary pulse pressure?
115 of 173
what s he capillary pressure for the pulmonary and sysoic?
pulmonary = 10mmHG, systemic= 15mmHG
116 of 173
what happens to bp in light exercise?
diastolic pressure down as TPR decreases, systolic pressure up as stroke volume and ej up
117 of 173
what is the inscisura and dicrotic notch caused by?
backflow of blood through valves
118 of 173
determinants of BP?
systolic- EJ + SV, diastolic- TPR, blood flow from arterial to venous sides
119 of 173
what are the 2 types of memory?
proecdural ad sicriminative
120 of 173
what is long term potentiation?
persistent increase in synaptic strength followig high frequency stimulation of a chemical synapse
121 of 173
where are studies of LTP usually done?
in hippocampus- hippocampall slices (learning+memory)
122 of 173
a lot of the work on LTP has been done on what part of the hippocampus?
synaptic connections between schaffer collaterals and CA1 pyramidal cells, electrical stimulation of schaffer collaterals generates EPSPs in the postsynaptic CA1 cells
123 of 173
what is the hippocampal slice pathway?
perforant pathway -> mossy fibres to CA3 ->? CA3 tp CA1 by schaffer collaterals
124 of 173
how can LTP be caused?
high frequency burst of synapse, post-tetanic LTP2 nerves stimulated at same time), LTP in specific pathway
125 of 173
where are the inputs to the hippocampus?
entorhinal cortex
126 of 173
what are the outputs of the hippocampus?
via the fornix
127 of 173
what increases in a longer time in LTP?
128 of 173
what is strengthened in a LTP in the hippocampus?
strengthened response from CA1 cells
129 of 173
when looking at LTP they look at CA3 to CA1 region of hippocampus what are they tryingto do?
strengthen response from CA1 cells in a long term way
130 of 173
what does reverbrating circuits mean?
lots of cells connected together , memory distributed over lots of cells, specific frequency brings up that memory
131 of 173
what is the hebbian synapse concept?
that synapses activity is modiafiable and synapses are plastic
132 of 173
long term storage seems to be what?
133 of 173
what is memory?
a storage of learned infomation
134 of 173
what is the engram?
the physical embodiment of a memory
135 of 173
what is another name for implicit memory?
136 of 173
what is procedural memory?
skills and associations largely unavailable to the conscious mind
137 of 173
what is working memory a part of?
short term memory so seconds or minutes
138 of 173
how long is immediate memory?
few seconds
139 of 173
where in the brain is responsible for working memory?
pre-frontal cortex
140 of 173
what kind of memory is the cerebellum inolved with?
procedural, sensorimotor
141 of 173
what lesions cause memory loss?
hippocampal lesions
142 of 173
what is the hippocampus imortant for in memmory?
declarative and converting short to long term memory
143 of 173
what is learning?
acuisition of infomation
144 of 173
what s recall?
reacqusition of stored infomation
145 of 173
the NS perform different types of what?
learning, memory
146 of 173
different forms of meory are stored in different what?
ways/pathways and regions
147 of 173
what is declarative memory?
memory avaliable ot the conscious mind cna be encoded inlanguage or symbols
148 of 173
how long is long term memory?
days, months or years
149 of 173
what is the importance of the amgdala in memory?
emotional/learnt fear/implict (procedural), multiple processed sensory inputs like smell, eg smell perfume of ex:(
150 of 173
how many layers is the cortex of the hippocampus?
151 of 173
why does the hippocampus have an unusual development?
seperation of cell layers that are continuous
152 of 173
what is lost in a stroke that means you can't lay down new memories?
153 of 173
how long is facilitiation/depression? how does this occur?
short term(minutes/hours), calcium avaliability and vesicle depletion
154 of 173
how long is long term facitilation/depression?
sustained for days or weeks
155 of 173
what is facitilation?
strenghtening output towards stimulus
156 of 173
what is depression?
weakening of output to stimulus
157 of 173
what is the other way LTP can be caused?
paired LTP (temporal pairing of inputs)
158 of 173
what is paired LTP?
coincident stimulus and depolirasition
159 of 173
what is paired LTP by associativity?
2 inputs, 1 cell same time -> strengthening of cell
160 of 173
what are you actually doing in paired LTP?
stimulus + depolarisation at same time so stimulus to schaffer collaterals and then depolarising CA1
161 of 173
where is long term depression looked at? what does LTD do to the epsp amp?
cerebullum, dcreases the EPSP
162 of 173
what does the gill withdrawal reflex demonstrate?
1) habitutation 2) short term sensitisation 3) long term sensitisation 4) classical and operant conditioning
163 of 173
how do you get short term sensitisation in the aplysia california?
pair single tail pinch with sphon touch -> restablishes siphon reflex for about 60+ mins
164 of 173
in what way does the aplysia california show habituation?
repeated gentle stimuli to siphon shows reduced gill withdrawal
165 of 173
how do you get a long term siphon/gill withdrawal reflex?
repeatedly pair aversive tail pinch with siphon touch (classical conditioning)
166 of 173
what does LTP, LTD and aplysia require?
receptor activation by glutamate or serotonin, altered synaptic responsivity, mediated by 2nd messengers 9ca+cAMP), pro phosphorylaion early stages,pro syn later stages , biochemstriuctural pre+post synaptic changes
167 of 173
what is anterograde amnesia?
not eing able to make new memories like in stroke
168 of 173
what amnesia is not being able to get old memories?
retrograde amnesia
169 of 173
what can cause amnesia?
ECT, tumours, head trauma. surgery
170 of 173
what is succeptible in alzeheimers?
171 of 173
what do you get in alzeheimers brain?
senile plaques and tangles, brain enlarged temporal horns more fluid filled, loss of hippocampus
172 of 173
what happens in Kluver Bucy syndrome?
amygdala lesions, papez circuit:hyper everything and visual and tactile agnosia
173 of 173

Other cards in this set

Card 2


what is the range of frequency for theta waves?



Card 3


what is the role of Non-rem sleep?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


how much blood is in the body?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


how much filtrate is produced per day?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Neuroscience resources »