HideShow resource information
  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 20-05-16 13:34
How much of our lives do we spend asleep?
175000- 1/3rd
1 of 117
3 ways of testing
Electroencephalogram (EEG)- Brain waves / Electroculogram (EOG)- eye movement/ Electromyogram (EMG)- Muscle tension
2 of 117
EEG- 4 categories of brain waves
Alpha, Beta, Theta, Delta
3 of 117
Awake and non-attentive (more common with eyes closed)
Large, regular Alpha waves
4 of 117
Awake and attentive
Low amplitude, fast, irregular and desynchronised beta waves
5 of 117
Waves in Stage 1
Theta waves- get bigger and slower
6 of 117
10 mins
7 of 117
2 things that can happen
Hypnogogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis
8 of 117
Stage 2- sleep spindles
Short bursts occur between 2-5 times every minute/ stages 1-4
9 of 117
Role in memory
More spindles= higher intelligence
10 of 117
K complexes
Only stage 2- triggered by noises/ involved in consolidation of memory
11 of 117
Who doesn't have them?
12 of 117
Stage 3 + 4
Slow, irregular delta
13 of 117
Percentage of delta in 3 and 4
20-25%/ 50%
14 of 117
REM occurs after
70 minutes of sleep
15 of 117
Insensitive to noises but
Respond to own name
16 of 117
5-15 mins
17 of 117
Difference between early in night and later on
More deep sleep earlier on, more REM later
18 of 117
REM sleep needed correlates with
Immaturity at birth (animals more mature at birth need less REM)
19 of 117
Babies in first few weeks
50% REM
20 of 117
Birds/ Reptile
Few seconds/ Reptiles
21 of 117
REM also involved with (poor lizards)
22 of 117
Changes though adulthood
REM proportion doesn't change/ NREM decreases
23 of 117
People that sleep over 10 hours
Increase in mortality
24 of 117
Recuperation theory
Restoring physiological stability lost while being awake
25 of 117
Adaption theory
Programmed to sleep at night- protected from accident and predation during the night
26 of 117
Prey compared to predators?
Sleep more
27 of 117
Sleep with one half of the brain at a time
28 of 117
Zebras and Lions
3 hours/ 2-3 days
29 of 117
High brain to body mass
More sleep
30 of 117
Most insomnia due to
31 of 117
Sleep deprived students
32 of 117
Randy Gardener- 11 days awake- slept 14 hours then back to normal
33 of 117
Functions not affected by slight deprivation
Critical thinking and logical deduction
34 of 117
Effect on physical performance
35 of 117
Deprivation of REM
REM rebound
36 of 117
No. of times you have to be awakened- 1st night and 7th night
17/ 67
37 of 117
Effect on behaviour
Very little!
38 of 117
REM role in memory consolidation?
Antidepressants- less REM- no effect on memory
39 of 117
Default theory
Difficult to stay consistently in NREM
40 of 117
Substituted REM for wakeful- not tired/ no rebound
41 of 117
Four brain regions involved in sleep regulation- Anterior and Posterior Hypothalamus
Damage to posterior hypothalamus= excessive sleeping/ damage to anterior hypothalamus= difficulty sleeping
42 of 117
Baron Constantine Van Economo
Encophalitis letargica- ps slept 20 hours a day! Lasted several weeks then recovery- disappeared next decade
43 of 117
Reticular formation
44 of 117
Cats- sever brain stem between superior and inferior colliculi= don't wake up/ Cut transsection caudal to colliculi= normal again
45 of 117
Nuclei in caudal reticular formation
Same brain area for wakefulness and REM- different nuclei control different aspects of REM
46 of 117
Chemicals accumulated throughout the day in
47 of 117
Astrocytes maintain small stock of nutrients in from of glycogen- increased brain activity= glycogen converted into glucose to fuel neurones
48 of 117
Decrease in glycogen
Increased extracellular adenosine- promotes sleep
49 of 117
More you do/ longer you're awake
More accumulation of glycogen= more adenosine
50 of 117
During SWS
Astrocytes renew stock of adenosine
51 of 117
Most important NT in arousal
52 of 117
Acetylecholine Antagonists/ Agonists
Decrease EEG/ Increase EEG
53 of 117
Two groups of neurones
Forebrain, pons
54 of 117
Levels highest
Stratium, hippocampus and cortex (in active animals)
55 of 117
Electrical stimulation of pons increasees release by
350% and activates cortex
56 of 117
Stress hormone
57 of 117
Located in
Locus Coeruleus of the pons
58 of 117
Noradrenalin agonist (amphetamines)
Arousal and sleeplessness
59 of 117
Serotonin produced by
Raphe nuclei in the pons
60 of 117
Stimulation causes
Movement (especially automatic) and arousal/ suppresses sensory info
61 of 117
Histamine located in
Tubermammilary nucleus of the hypothalamus
62 of 117
Cortical arousal
Direct or Indirect- via acetylecholine neurones
63 of 117
When is activity high and low?
During waking/ during sleep
64 of 117
Orexin located in
Lateral hypothalamus
65 of 117
How many neurones?
7000= very few!
66 of 117
Project to
Almost all areas
67 of 117
Active during
68 of 117
Problems with orexin signalling
69 of 117
Sleep controlled by 3 factors - Homeostatic
Need to sleep to restore-> adenosine dealio
70 of 117
If there's something more important going on you won't fall asleep
71 of 117
Circadian factors
Time of day- sleep when it's dark
72 of 117
What area in the anterior hypothalamus controls arousal neurones
Preoptics Area
73 of 117
Ventrolateral Preoptic Area (VLPA)
Neurones that inhibit arousal neurones
74 of 117
Majority of neurones in VLPA secrete
GABA- send axons to brain regions involved in arousal
75 of 117
Neurones in VLPA inhibited by
Histamine, noradrenalin, serotonin
76 of 117
Mutated orexin gene
Same amount of sleep but more transition between sleep and awake
77 of 117
Orexin neurones receive excitatory input from biological clock
Hunger= increased orexin/ Satiety= decreased orexin
78 of 117
Overcomes excitatory input from other areas= sleep
79 of 117
REM flip flop mechanism
Either awake or asleep
80 of 117
Cerebral activation during wakefulness and sleep
Acetylecholine in pons firing at high rate
81 of 117
Orexin during REM
Excitatory input
82 of 117
Noradrenalin and serotonin during REM
83 of 117
Emotional stimuli
Activates amygdala while REM is still on
84 of 117
No orexin
REM when you're awake, straight from wakefulness to REM= Narcolepsy= triggered by emotional stimuli
85 of 117
Dreams in NREM?
Would say they weren't dreaming but can report some image or emotion- can report dreams if awoken before REM
86 of 117
Dreams- _% sadness, apprehension or anger/ _% happiness or excitement/ _% sexual feelings or acts
65%/ 20%/ 1%
87 of 117
Dream about
Things that happen during the day
88 of 117
Novel learning
Effect dream reports- helps consolidation of memory
89 of 117
Used in maze puzzle- reactive during sleep (most in NREM)
90 of 117
Waking firing sequences
Not replicated exactly in original form- intermittent bursts and faster time scale
91 of 117
Finger movement tast
Better after sleep
92 of 117
Told story
Dream about story= better memory
93 of 117
Sleep allows recently encoded info related into memory network/ into cortical semantic networks
94 of 117
High amygdala activation during REM sleep
95 of 117
Decrease amygdala activity and reduce REM
96 of 117
Genes related to depression
Cholinergic receptor genes involved in REM regulation
97 of 117
Involved in REM sleep dysregulation, depression and stress
98 of 117
Insomnia affects _% of population sometimes/ _% regularly
25%/ 9%
99 of 117
More frequent in
Females/ Elderly/ Shift workers/ psychiatric patients
100 of 117
Linked to
Low SES, poor education, chronic medical illness or pain, recent life stress, use of alcohol
101 of 117
Narcolepsy most common in
102 of 117
_% of population
103 of 117
4 symptoms in order of prevelance
Sleep attacks/ Cataplexy/ Hypnogogic hallucinations/ Sleep paralysis
104 of 117
Obstructive sleep apnea
Extreme snoring/ airway blocked/ wake up every few mins/ sleepy during day/ may suffer from brain damage or even die
105 of 117
NREM parasomniacs
associated with use of sedative-hypnotic medication
106 of 117
Confusional arousal
Disorientation during arousal from NREM sleep
107 of 117
Sleep walking
Combination of impaired conciousness after an arousal and ambulation
108 of 117
_% children/ _% adults
17%/ 4%
109 of 117
Sleep terrors
Intense fear initiated by cry or scream- increase in autonomic nervous system activity
110 of 117
Sleep related eating disorder
Eat when you're asleep
111 of 117
REM sleep disorder
Loss of normal atonia- not successfully paralysed
112 of 117
More frequent in
Males >50
113 of 117
Associated with
Neurogenerative disorders
114 of 117
Genetic component?
115 of 117
Treated with
Clonazepam and bonzodiazepine
116 of 117
Isolated sleep paralysis
Preservation of atonia after arousal from REM sleep
117 of 117

Other cards in this set

Card 2


3 ways of testing


Electroencephalogram (EEG)- Brain waves / Electroculogram (EOG)- eye movement/ Electromyogram (EMG)- Muscle tension

Card 3


EEG- 4 categories of brain waves


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Awake and non-attentive (more common with eyes closed)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Awake and attentive


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Biological Psychology resources »