second half of unit one

refers to the changes that occur over the lifespan - changes must be relatively permanent to be considered a change
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physical development
including changes in the body, growing taller, puberty
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social development
includes relationships, conversations/communication
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cognitive development
includes individuals mental abilities, learning new language, times tables
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emotional development
includes different feelings, expressing anger, recognising your own emotions
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social, emotional, congitive
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developmental "norms"
show the patterns of development and the approximate ages at which a characteristic or ability appears in the ‘average’ person
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nature vs nurture debate
nature refers to genetics, nurture refers to the environment
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refers to the biologically programed changes which facilitate development from conception throughout adulthood
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critical periods
a narrow rigid developmental period in which a specific skill or function MUST BE developed
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sensitive periods
are optimal developmental time frames in which there is an opportunity to learn a new skill/process it fastest/easiest way
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involves the formation of log lasting emotional bond between two individuals
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attachment theory
suggests that the bond formed between children and their primary caregivers determines the nature of the child emotional development into adulthood
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secure attachment
involves the need of the infant consistently being met by their primary caregiver/s, allows an emotional bond to form a "healthy" relationship, allows the child to have good relationships
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insecure attachment
involves the primary caregiver/s inconsistently ignoring the child needs, commonly leading to infants not seeking comfort from the caregiver. "unhealthy", various types; insecure-avoidant, insecure-anxious & disorganised attachment
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factors that affect attachment styles
early life experiences; before birth up to the age of around five
genetics; the unique makeup of an individual
temperant; which is the relatively stable disposition of each individual
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Harry Harlow's theory of ___
what was the experiment
conducted an experiment on rhesus monkeys 1959, investigating the factors influencing the development of attachment by infant monkies to their mothers
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conclusion of Harlow's experiment
monkies formed an attachment based on comfort rather than biological needs for food. nursing bonded the mother and baby.
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refers to our ability to think about, understand and organise information
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schema definition
is a mental representation of a concept that is developed through our experiences
childhood - formation of schemas
adulthood - modifying existing schemas
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the cognitive process of incorporating new information into an existing schema
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the cognitive process of restructuring an existing schema in order to fit in new information
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four stages of cognitive development
sensorimotor stage, 0-2 years
preoperational stage, 2-7 years
concrete operational stage, 7-12
formal operational stage, 12+
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Sensorimotor Stage definition, age & key cognitive accomplishments
occurs during infancy. interact with the world through senses and develop motor skills.
Coordinate motor activities to build an understanding of the world around them.
Key cognitive accomplishments:
Object permanence Goal-directed behaviour 0-2
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object permanence
involves the understanding that an object still exists when it is unable to be seen, heard, or touched (e.g. peek-a-boo, A-not-B error)
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goal-directed behaviour
involves the ability to behave in a way to meet a goal that has been purposefully planned
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definition of the preoperational stage, age & the key accomplishments
Children begin to understand how objects, events, and ideas can be represented using images and symbols and developing additional skills such as acquiring language. Key accomplishments:
Overcoming egocentrism (decentered thought) Overcoming centration Rev
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egocentrism & decentre thought
Egocentrism involves the inability to understand the perspectives of others.
Decentered thought involves the ability to understand the perspectives of others, comprehending that these are different from their own.
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centration & reversibility
Centration involves focusing on only one feature or characteristic of an object, leading to the exclusion of other existing features or characteristics. Reversibility involves understanding that objects can experience change and then return to their origi
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concrete operational stage definition, age & key accomplishments
Here, young people develop the ability to make representations of, organise, and understand concepts in a more complex and accurate manner (concrete, not abstract).
Key accomplishments:
Mathematical equations Conservation of objects Classification 7-12
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Conservation involves the ability to understand that the properties of an object stay the same when the object’s appearance is altered (i.e. weight, mass, volume).
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Classification involves the ability to group objects or concepts into categories that are organised on the basis of common features.
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formal operational stage definition, age & key accomplishments
This stage equips individuals with the skills to comprehend and produce abstract and sophisticated thought, as well as to use reasoning and logic.
Key accomplishments:
Abstract thought
Use of logic and reasoning
age 12+
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abstract thought
Involves the ability to consider concepts and ideas that are not tangible or concrete, relying on our faculties like the imagination instead of our senses (e.g. love, faith, religious belief).
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logic & reasoning
Logic refers to the ability to objectively consider a problem or scenario and accurately consider all possible pathways which could be taken in order to resolve the problem.
Reasoning involves using logic to process a concept and come to a sensible and va
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concrete thinking
is a type of thought based on knowledge acquired through personal experience which involves literal tangible concepts
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symbolic thinking
a more sophicasted type of thought based on the ability to represent concepts, draw conclusions and understand hypothetical
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evaluation of Piaget's theory
underestimating children's abilities, lack of representation of cultures, the neglect of possible stages of development in adulthood, invalid research methods
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Psychosocial Development
Psychosocial development refers to the interactions between cognitive and social processes throughout the lifespan that affects development and growth.
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Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
Stage theory of development focusing on personality.
His theory describes the impact of certain social experiences on personality development at various stages of the entire lifespan.
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Erikson proposed that...
There are eight sequential stages and crises individuals need to confront to develop psychosocial health.
The decisions and actions each individual takes when confronting a crisis determine their psychosocial development.
The eight stages span the entire
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Psychosocial Crisis
A point of tension arising when there is a conflict between an individual’s capabilities and personal desires and the desire to meet the expectations of society. Our personality is shaped by how we deal with the crisis.NOT a catastrophe, but a turning poi
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Psychosocial Stages
These eight stages are a picture of what is ideal.
Better they deal with the crisis, the healthier their psychosocial development.
If the stage is not successfully resolved, it will impact personality and adjustment to society.
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stage one...
Trust refers to the views and expectations that infants develop about the world.
If infants needs are met, they will view the world as caring, helpful, and dependable.
When care is inadequate, irregular or even rejecting, mistrust can develop. They will
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stage two...
Autonomy refers to the ability to do things independently and the feelings of self-control, self-confidence, self-reliance and competence which accompanies this. A sense of being too dependent on others can lead to a lack of self-confidence and feelings o
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stage three...
Initiative involves the implementation of purposeful plans during social interactions as well as the ability to produce independent thought. At this stage, children no longer merely react. They plan & think for themselves, act with purpose, explore and fo
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stage four part one...
Industry involves the self-belief that you are competent and can fulfill the requirements of goals you set for yourself.

A sense of industry is often established in children who have experienced encouragement from caregivers to try their best in all circ
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stage four part two...
Inferiority may develop if children feel inadequate when comparing themselves to their peers or if they lack encouragement from caregivers to exert effort and achieve goals.
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stage five...
Identity refers to holding a strong belief in who you are and what your beliefs and values are. The ability to make choices that align to your beliefs and values and stay true to yourself occurs when a sense of identity is attained. Role confusion - a sen
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stage six part one...
Erikson used the term intimacy to refer to the ability to share with and care about another person without fear of losing oneself in the process. Isolation refers to the sense of being alone without anyone to share one’s life with or care for. Intimacy do
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stage six part two...
Intimacy does not necessarily involve sex and it includes the relationship between friends. If intimacy is not established with friends or a partner, the result, in Erikson’s view, is a sense of isolation.
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stage seven part one...
Generativity refers to a person’s concern with others beyond their immediate family, with future generations and the nature of the society and world in which those generations will live. People who achieve generativity build their lives around doing thing
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stage seven part two...
If these needs are not met, people develop a sense of stagnation. Stagnation refers to a sense of ‘sameness’, inactivity, boredom, too much concern with personal needs and comfort and a lack of growth.
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stage eight part one...
The sense of integrity arises from the individual's ability to look back on their life with satisfaction. Integrity refers to a sense of satisfaction with one’s achievements in life and a belief that all that happened in the course of one’s life has been
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stage eight part two...
At the other end of the spectrum is the individual who looks back on their life with a sense of despair. Despair involves bitter feelings. Despair involves bitter feelings of hopelessness, involving lost opportunities, mistakes that were made and the sens
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Evaluation of Erikson’s Theory
Age ranges might be inaccurate
The theory is very prescriptive. Individuals may not experience all the crises but still healthily develop.
Some stages have been criticised as invalid or inaccurate.
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Conceptualising Normality
Normality refers to thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that are considered common and acceptable.
Approaches to understanding normality include: socio-cultural, functional, historical, medical, statistical and situational approaches.
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Socio-cultural approach
Socio-cultural approach to normality suggests normality can be defined by the prominent social codes of a particular culture.
Cultural characteristics that can inform this include: religious belief, values relating to work, values relating to gender, valu
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Functional approach
Functional approach to normality is where what is normal are all of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that enable us to function effectively.
Functioning means being able to meet the demands of our daily life (e.g. cooking, cleaning, meeting deadlin
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Historical approach
Historical approach to normality defines what is standard and acceptable according to the period of time that it occurred in.
Ideas of normality can change as time passes. What is normal now, might not be in the future
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Medical approach
The medical approach to normality suggests that what is considered as abnormal can be diagnosed by a medical practitioner.
If thoughts, feelings and behaviours meet do not meet diagnostic criteria for a mental illness, then they are normal.
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Statistical approach
The statistical approach to normality suggests that thoughts, feelings and behaviours can be recorded and represented statistically through normal distribution.
What is normal, is what has been recorded most frequently (e.g. crying when cutting onions)
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Situational approach
The situational approach to normality underlines that what is considered as normal depends on the specific situation where our throughs, feelings, and behaviours emerge.
A behaviour can be normal in one setting and abnormal in another
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Typical Behaviours
Typical behaviours relate to how an individual usually acts.
If you’re normally enthusiastic and expressive, then dancing and clapping might be typical behaviour when you get good news.
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Atypical Behaviour
Atypical behaviours are unusual according to how an individual usually acts.
If that enthusiastic and expressive person was to suddenly become detached and despondent, this would be atypical for that person.
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Adaptive Behaviours
Adaptive behaviours enable an individual to change (adapt) in order to meet the changing demands of their everyday lives.
Behaviour might be productive in one situation and unproductive in others.
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Maladaptive Behaviours
Maladaptive behaviours impair an individual’s ability to meet changing circumstances they are faced with.
May impair their ability to behave productively and effectively when faced with new and challenging situations (e.g. Group work).
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The Concept of Mental Health
Mental health refers to the current state of a person’s psychological wellbeing
and functioning.
Many factors affect mental health including emotions you are feeling, behaviours and interactions with others.
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Mental Health Disorders
A specific diagnosed psychological state characterised by the presence of a severe disturbance, sense of distress, and thoughts, feelings and/or behaviour that are atypical of the person and significantly impact their ability to function independently.
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Mental health disorders could include:
Showing low resilience to stressors
Not being able to complete everyday activities such as going to school or work
Not being able to regulate one’s emotions or thoughts
Not being able to maintain regular social relationships
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Mentally Healthy
A psychological state that maintains or improves functioning.
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Mental Health Problem
A temporary state markedly impairing levels of functioning. Symptoms shorter in duration or less severe.
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Mental Health disorder
A more enduring and diagnosable mental health problem.
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The Biopsychosocial Model of Mental Health
This framework suggests that biological, psychological and social factors all interact and contribute to mental health.
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Biological factors
Factors relating to genetic makeup and physiological functioning of the body (e.g. exercise, substance use, sleep patterns).
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Psychological Factors
Factors relating to cognitive and affective functioning (e.g. thought processes and patterns, negative thoughts).
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Social Factors
Factors relating to an individual’s interaction with their external environment and other people (e.g. break-up, pressure at work, etc.)
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Internal factors:
stem from within an individual and relate to biological or psychological functioning.
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External factors:
stem from outside an individual and arise from their environment, such as social influences.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


including changes in the body, growing taller, puberty


physical development

Card 3


includes relationships, conversations/communication


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


includes individuals mental abilities, learning new language, times tables


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


includes different feelings, expressing anger, recognising your own emotions


Preview of the back of card 5
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