# Scientific Processes: Aims, Hypothesis and Variables

Aims
This is a general statement of what the researcher intends to investigate. Example: To investigate whether energy drinks affects the talkativeness of those who drink it.
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Hypothesis
This is a clear, precise, testable statement that states the relationship between the variables to be investigated.
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Experimental Hypothesis
This states that there is a significant difference between variables.
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Directional Hypothesis
This states the direction of the difference. e.g higher or lower. Psychologists tend to use this hypothesis when the results of the previous research suggests a particular outcome.
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Non-Directional Hypothesis
This doesn't state the direction of the difference. Psychologists use this hypothesis when there is no previous research or findings from research are contradictory.
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Null Hypothesis
This states that there is no significant difference between variables. Example: There will be no difference in the number of words spoken in a minute for those who drink 500ml of energy drink compared to those who drink 500ml of water.
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Variable
Is anything that is open to change.
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Independent Variable (IV)
This is something that the researcher changes or manipulates. Example: The amount of energy drink,the amount of water.
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Dependent Variable (DV)
This is something the researcher measures, to see if there has been a change. Example: The talkativeness measured in number of words spoken per minute.
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Operationalisation
Clearly defining variables in terms of how they are measured. Example: ml of energy drink, number of words spoke in a minute.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

This is a clear, precise, testable statement that states the relationship between the variables to be investigated.

Hypothesis

### Card 3

#### Front

This states that there is a significant difference between variables.

### Card 4

#### Front

This states the direction of the difference. e.g higher or lower. Psychologists tend to use this hypothesis when the results of the previous research suggests a particular outcome.

### Card 5

#### Front

This doesn't state the direction of the difference. Psychologists use this hypothesis when there is no previous research or findings from research are contradictory.