Research Methods

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  • Research Methods
    • Key Features of science
      • Imperialism
        • information gained through direct observation or experiments rather than reasoned arguments, unfounded belief
      • Empirical methods
        • the act of understanding the world by measuring its empiricism. an approach that focuses on experiments as a way of understanding the world
      • Objectivity
        • removal of ones feelings, beliefs and thoughts from their own research to avoid demand characteristics, investigator/ experimenter bias
      • Replicability
        • if a study has been repeated and the same results have been found it has been 'replicated'
      • Control
        • scientists seek to demonstrate a causal relationship so they can predict/ control our world. the only way to do this is by using an experiment and control variables to see the effect on the DV
      • Theory construction
        • facts that have been recorded should be used to create theories. a good theory should explain much of the data available and create testable hypothesis
      • Scientific Process
        • Induction
          • reasoning from particular to general. involves observing natural phenomena, then creating a testable hypothesis and then a study. conclusions and theories based on these conclusions are drawn
        • Deduction
          • reasoning from general to particular. Involves observing something, then creating a theory, testing the hypothesis through a study and then drawing conclusions
    • Hypothesis Testing
      • hypothesis are used to help create controlled research, where the aims have been carefully stated and variables carefully controlled
      • Lab Experiements provide the most control because the IV and DV are operationalized so the hypothesis can be tested reliabily
      • 1. researcher has an idea after eading previous research
        • 2.fromulates an aim and constructs a hypothesis wanted the test
          • 3. researcher runs a piece of research to test hypothesis
            • 4. if research supports the hypothesis then it is published or more research conducted
              • 5. if research does not support then the researcher may run another experiment to find out why?, or may change hypothesis if it was wrong
                • 6. process is repeated many times and forms the basis for scientific method
                  • Hypothesis Testing
                    • hypothesis are used to help create controlled research, where the aims have been carefully stated and variables carefully controlled
                    • Lab Experiements provide the most control because the IV and DV are operationalized so the hypothesis can be tested reliabily
                    • 1. researcher has an idea after eading previous research
                      • 2.fromulates an aim and constructs a hypothesis wanted the test
                        • 3. researcher runs a piece of research to test hypothesis
                          • 4. if research supports the hypothesis then it is published or more research conducted
                            • 5. if research does not support then the researcher may run another experiment to find out why?, or may change hypothesis if it was wrong
                              • 6. process is repeated many times and forms the basis for scientific method
      • Validating new Knowledge
        • Ethics Committee
          • made up by expert researcher from the area being studied. Every new piece of research may be examined by an ethic committee to make sure that it obeys the ethical rule and that there is value in the research
        • Publishing review
          • conducted by experts in the same field as the new research.Attempt to make sure that the research has been carefully conducted, found something worthwhile and is worthy of being presented by 3 peer review experts who will either agree that it should be published, say it needs improving, or state it should not be published.
        • Funding reviews
          • conducted by scientific peers. Committees allocate the money to charities and the government have saved for scientific research. The funding committees prefer to fund worthwhile research from proven researchers who are not likely to waste money spent
      • Convections for reporting psychological investigations
        • Abstract
          • summary of study, coverying hypothesis, method, results an conclusions
        • Introduction/ aim
          • what researcher intended to investigate, including reviews of previous research, and explaining why they want to conduct this research
        • Method
          • detailed description of what researchers did, with enough information to replicate the study. participants, testing environment, procedures and instructions.
        • Results
          • what researchers found, with statistical data to determine significance
        • Dscussion
          • explanations of what they found and implications of future research
        • References
          • journal articles or books mentioned
      • Role of peer review
        • involves assessment of scientific work by others, who are experts in the same fields. it is to ensure any research conducted and published is of quality.
        • reviewed by a number of people who have to check the quality of the research, and their views are considered by the peer review panel. serves 3 main purposes
        • 1.Allocation of research findings: research is paid by governments and charities, need to be bale to see if the research is going to be worthwhile
        • 2. Publication of research in scientific journals & books: provides scientific with opportunity to share result of research
        • 3. Assessing research rating of university departments: all science departments are expected to conduct research which isassessed, amd further funding relies on good reviews
      • Experimental methods
        • Lab experiments
          • high leavels of internal validity because extraneous variables are controlled. easily replicated
          • conducted in a controlled environment
        • field experiments
          • conducted in a natural setting
          • PP's not usually aware they're in a study so more ecological validity
          • Demand characteristics may be a problem. harder to control extraneous variables
        • Natural Experiments
          • makes use of existing IV
    • reduced external validity becuause of tight control making it lack ecological validity
      • Lab experiments
        • high leavels of internal validity because extraneous variables are controlled. easily replicated
        • conducted in a controlled environment

    Comments

    MrsMacLean

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    This is fantastic - really detailed 

    Caroll C. Kilby

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    This is really great! Is there anything about research paper structure????

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