Schaffer's Stages of Attachment

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  • Created by: Gottowork
  • Created on: 12-05-16 18:45
Tell me about the procedure of Schaffer and Emerson's study
Glasgow - 60 babies. Babies and mothers visited at home every month for year, again at 18 months. Asked mothers questions about separation anxiety and stranger anxiety
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What did Schaffer and Emerson find?
Between 25 and 32 weeks, 50% of babies showed separation anxiety. Attachment with caregiver most sensitive. 40 weeks = 80% of babies had specific attachment, 30% had multiple
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Why does Schaffer and Emerson's study have good external validity?
Carried out in families' own homes, parent observed themselves. Participants therefore behaved naturally
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Why is a longitudinal design good?
Same children followed up and observed regularly. Good internal validity, no confounding variable of individual differences
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Why are there limited sample characteristics in Schaffer and Emerson's study?
Sample size of 60 good, but families involved in same district and social class, at over 50 years ago. So results don't necessarily generalise well - child-rearing practices vary
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What are the four stages of attachment?
Asocial (first few weeks), indiscriminate (2-7 months), specific (7 months onwards), multiple (after)
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What is involved in the asocial stage?
The baby's behaviour towards objects and humans is similar, show some preference for familiar adults
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What is an indiscriminate attachment?
Preference for people, and familiar adults. Accept comfort from any adult, not different towards anyone
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What does Schaffer and Emerson mean by specific attachment?
Anxiety towards strangers, separation anxiety from one particular adult - primary attachment figure
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What is the problem with studying the asocial stage?
There isn't much observable behaviour, babies very immobile, so evidence cannot be relied on
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Why is it difficult to measure multiple attachments?
Just because a baby gets distressed, doesn't mean there's attachment, e.g. playmates. Can't distinguish between secondary attachment figures and playmates?
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Why is there conflicting evidence on multiple attachments?
Some research indicates form specific attachments before multiple, others believe babies form multiple from the outset (collectivist cultures, families work together in child rearing)
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Card 2

Front

What did Schaffer and Emerson find?

Back

Between 25 and 32 weeks, 50% of babies showed separation anxiety. Attachment with caregiver most sensitive. 40 weeks = 80% of babies had specific attachment, 30% had multiple

Card 3

Front

Why does Schaffer and Emerson's study have good external validity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why is a longitudinal design good?

Back

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Card 5

Front

Why are there limited sample characteristics in Schaffer and Emerson's study?

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