Rivers and coasts

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Water being soaked into the soil.
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Water moving vertically down through soil and rock.
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Water in soil flowing downhill.
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Groundwater flow
Water in rock flowing downhill.
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Surface runoff
Water flowing overground.
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Channel flow
The flow of water in a river.
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Channel storage
When waster is held in a river.
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Groundwater storage
When water is stored underground in soil and rock.
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Interception sotrage
When water lands on things like plant leaves and doesn't hit the ground.
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Surface storage
When water is held in things like lakes, reservoirs and puddles.
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The boundary between drainage basins.
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A smaller river that joins a main river.
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Where a river starts.
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A point where two rivers meet.
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Where a river flows into the sea or a lake.
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Mechanical weathering
The breakdown of rocks without changing their chemical composition.
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Chemical weathering
The breakdown of rocks by changing their chemical weathering.
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Biological weathering
The breakdown of rocks by living things.
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Hydraulic action
The force of water breaks rock particles away from the river channel.
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Eroded rocks picked up by the river scrape and rub against the channel, wearing it away.
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Eroded rocks picked up by the river smash into each other and break into smaller fragment. Their edges get rounded off as they rub together.
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River water dissolves some types of rock.
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Large particles like boulders are pushed along the river bed by the force of the water.
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Pebble-sized particles are bounced along the river bed by the force of the water.
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Small particles like silt and clay are carried along by the water.
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Soluble materials dissolve in the water and are carried along.
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Peak discharge
The highest discharge in the period of time you're looking at.
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Lag time
The delay between peak rainfall and peak discharge.
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Rising limb
The increase in river discharge as rainwater flows into the river.
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Falling limb
The decrease in river discharge as the river returns to its normal level.
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Dams and reservoirs
Dams are built across the rivers, usually in the upper course. A reservoir is formed behind the dam.
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Channel straightening
The river's course is straightened, meanders are cut out by building artificial straight channels.
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Man-made leeves
Man-made embankments along both sides of a river.
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Flood warnings
People are warned about possible floods through TV. radio, newspapers and the internet.
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Buildings are modified to reduce the amount of damage a flood could cause. People make plans for what to do in a flood.
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Flood plain zoning
Restrictions prevent building on parts of a flood plain that are likely to be affected by a flood.
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The distance of water over which the wind has blown to produce a wave.
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Hard engineering
Man-made structures built to control the flow of sea and reduce flooding and erosion.
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Soft engineering
Schhemes set up using knowledge of the sea and its processes to reduce the effects of flooding and erosion.
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Sea wall
A wall made out of hard material like concrete that reflects waves back to sea.
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Rip rap
Boulders that are piles up along the coast.
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Wooden or stone fences that are built at right angles to the coast. They trap material transported by longshore drift.
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Slanted structures made of concrete, wod or rocks built at the foot of cliffs.
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Rock-filled cages, built at the foot of cliffs.
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Concrete blocks or boulders deposited on the sea bed off the coast.
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Beach replenishment
Sand and shingle from elsewhere that's added to beaches.
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Managed retreat
Removing existing defence and allowing the land behind it to flood.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Water moving vertically down through soil and rock.



Card 3


Water in soil flowing downhill.


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Card 4


Water in rock flowing downhill.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Water flowing overground.


Preview of the back of card 5
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