Rings, Polymers and Analysis Reaction Conditions

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  • Created by: Imogen
  • Created on: 14-06-13 20:27
Nitration of Benzene
conc. Nitric Acid, conc. Sulfuric Acid, Heat in 50°C
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Halogenation of Benzene
Halogen in the presence of a Halogen Carrier
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Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes
Acidified Dichromate Ions, Heat and distil for Aldehydes, Heat in reflux for Carboxylic Acids
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Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
Sodium Borohydride, Water as a solvent, Heat gently
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Silver Mirror Test
Tollen's Reagent (Ammoniacal Silver Nitrate) and place the test tube in hot water
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Brady's Reagent
2,4-DNPH (2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine)
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Ester Formation
Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids, conc. Sulfuric Acid Catalyst, Alcohols and Acid Anhydrides, gentle heating
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Hydrolysis of Esters
1. Acid Hydrolysis, 6 mol dm-3 HCl, Heat in reflux 2. Alkaline Hydrolysis, Dilute NaOH, heat at temperatures above 100°C
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Formation of Biodiesel
NaOH catalyst
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Formation of Alkyl Amines
Excess Ammonia, Alcohol as a common solvent, Warm in a sealed tube
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Formation of Aryl Amines
It is only possible to form Aryl Amines from nitrobenzene. This reaction requires conc. HCl and a Sn catalyst
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Hydrolysis of Polypeptides and Proteins
1. Acid Hydrolysis, 6 mol dm-3 HCl, Heat in reflux for 24 hours 2. Alkaline Hydrolysis, aqueous NaOH catalyst and heat at temperatures above 100°C
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Formation of Azo Dyes
1. Diazotisation: Nitrous Acid formed in situ from Sodium Nitrite and excess Hydrochloric Acid. Temperatures are kept below 10°C. 2. Coupling: Benzenediazonium Ion is reacted with Phenol under alkaline conditions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Halogen in the presence of a Halogen Carrier

Back

Halogenation of Benzene

Card 3

Front

Acidified Dichromate Ions, Heat and distil for Aldehydes, Heat in reflux for Carboxylic Acids

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Sodium Borohydride, Water as a solvent, Heat gently

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Tollen's Reagent (Ammoniacal Silver Nitrate) and place the test tube in hot water

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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