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F324: Rings, Polymers and Analysis
Reactions to learn


Arenes
1. Benzene + c. Nitric Acid Nitrobenzene (50-55oC)


eg C6H6 + HNO3 C6H5NO2 + H2O


2. Benzene + Halogen Halobenzene + Hydrogen
Halide

eg C6H6 + Cl2 C6H5Cl + HCl * can use Fe, or
any iron halide and
aluminium halide…

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bromide (RT)




Carbonyl Compounds

1. Reduction
reducing agents NaBH4 or AlLiH4 use [H] in equations
Aldehyde + 2[H] Primary Alcohol

Eg CH3CHO + 2[H] CH3CH2OH
ethanol ethanal

Ketone + 2[H] Secondary Alcohol

Eg CH3COCH3 + 2[H] CH3CH(OH)CH3
propanone propan-2-ol

2.Oxidation
used to distinguish between aldehydes & ketones; aldehydes
oxidised to…

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b) Fehlings Solution ­ (complex ion of Cu2+ )




methanol methanoic acid red/brown ppt

3.Condensation (not expected to memorise but to be familiar with)
used to identify the presence of a carbonyl compound using
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine.




2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine yellow/orange ppt

Carboxylic Acids

1. Carboxylic Acid + Alkali Salt + Water
eg C2H5COOH…

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Esters

1. Hydrolysis (acid catalyst)
Ester + Water Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol




ethyl ethanoate ethanoic acid ethanol


2. Hydrolysis (alkali catalyst)
Ester + Water Carboxylic Acid Salt +
Alcohol




ethyl benzoate sodium benzoate

Amines

1. Preparation
a) Halogenoalkane + Ammonia Amine + Hydrogen halide
(ethanolic soln)
eg CH3CH2CH2Cl + NH3…

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eg C2H5NH2(aq) + HCl(aq) C2H5NH3+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
ethylamine ethylammonium chloride



3. Diazotisation
Phenylamine reacts with nitrous acid (formed in situ , < 10oC)
eg. Nitrous acid formation
a) NaNO2 + HCl HNO2 + NaCl
nitrous acid




phenylamine benzenediazonium chloride

b) Coupling Reaction
the diazonium salt can take part in a…

Page 6

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F324: Rings, Polymers and Analysis
Mechanisms to learn


1. Electrophilic Substitution

Benzene
H2SO4 + HNO3 HSO4- + H2NO3+

H2NO3+ H2O + NO2+




H+ + HSO4- H2SO4

2. Nucleophilic Addition

Aldehydes or Ketones

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(AS Mechanisms you will be expected to know these as well)

3. Nucleophilic Substitution

Halogenoalkanes




4. Electrophilic Addition

Alkenes




5. Free Radical Substitution

Alkanes
i) Initiation

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ii) Propegation




iii) Termination

Comments

Samira

Wow these are really good!

thanks

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