F324 equations and mechanisms to learn

equations to learn for OCR F324

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F324: Rings, Polymers and Analysis
Reactions to learn
Arenes
1. Benzene + c. Nitric Acid Nitrobenzene (50-55oC)
eg C6H6 + HNO3 C6H5NO2 + H2O
2. Benzene + Halogen Halobenzene + Hydrogen
Halide
eg C6H6 + Cl2 C6H5Cl + HCl * can use Fe, or
any iron halide and
aluminium halide
3. Phenol + Base Salt + Water
eg. C6H5OH + NaOH C6H5O-Na+ + H2O
sodium phenoxide
4. Phenol + Sodium Sodium Phenoxide + Hydrogen
eg 2C6H5OH + 2Na 2C6H5O-Na+ + H2
5. Phenol + Bromine 2,4,6-tribromophenol + hydrogen

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RT)
Carbonyl Compounds
1. Reduction
reducing agents NaBH4 or AlLiH4 use [H] in equations
Aldehyde + 2[H] Primary Alcohol
Eg CH3CHO + 2[H] CH3CH2OH
ethanol ethanal
Ketone + 2[H] Secondary Alcohol
Eg CH3COCH3 + 2[H] CH3CH(OH)CH3
propanone propan-2-ol
2.Oxidation
used to distinguish between aldehydes & ketones; aldehydes
oxidised to carboxylic acids whilst ketones will not react.…read more

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Fehlings Solution ­ (complex ion of Cu2+ )
methanol methanoic acid red/brown ppt
3.Condensation (not expected to memorise but to be familiar with)
used to identify the presence of a carbonyl compound using
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine.
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine yellow/orange ppt
Carboxylic Acids
1. Carboxylic Acid + Alkali Salt + Water
eg C2H5COOH + KOH C2H5COOK + H2O
propanoic acid potassium propanoate
2. Carboxylic Acid + Metal Salt + Hydrogen
eg C3H7COOH + Mg (C3H7COO)2Mg + H2
butanoic acid magnesium butanoate
3.…read more

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Esters
1. Hydrolysis (acid catalyst)
Ester + Water Carboxylic Acid + Alcohol
ethyl ethanoate ethanoic acid ethanol
2. Hydrolysis (alkali catalyst)
Ester + Water Carboxylic Acid Salt +
Alcohol
ethyl benzoate sodium benzoate
Amines
1. Preparation
a) Halogenoalkane + Ammonia Amine + Hydrogen halide
(ethanolic soln)
eg CH3CH2CH2Cl + NH3 CH3CH2CH2NH2 + HCl
1-chloropropane propylamine
b) Nitrobenzene + Tin + c.HCl Phenylamine + Water
2.…read more

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C2H5NH2(aq) + HCl(aq) C2H5NH3+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
ethylamine ethylammonium chloride
3. Diazotisation
Phenylamine reacts with nitrous acid (formed in situ , < 10oC)
eg. Nitrous acid formation
a) NaNO2 + HCl HNO2 + NaCl
nitrous acid
phenylamine benzenediazonium chloride
b) Coupling Reaction
the diazonium salt can take part in a coupling reaction with
phenols (alkali conditions) to form azo dyes.…read more

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F324: Rings, Polymers and Analysis
Mechanisms to learn
1. Electrophilic Substitution
Benzene
H2SO4 + HNO3 HSO4- + H2NO3+
H2NO3+ H2O + NO2+
H+ + HSO4- H2SO4
2.…read more

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AS Mechanisms you will be expected to know these as well)
3. Nucleophilic Substitution
Halogenoalkanes
4. Electrophilic Addition
Alkenes
5.…read more

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Propegation
iii) Termination…read more

Comments

Samira

Wow these are really good!

thanks

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