# Research methods key terms

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• Created by: jaaaz_v
• Created on: 28-04-15 20:50
Hypothesis
A testable statement about the relationship between two variables.
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Variable
A factor or thing that can change (it varies)
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Independent Variable (IV)
the variable that the researcher alters or manipulates to look for an effect on another variable.
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Dependent Variable (DV)
The variable that the researcher measures to see if the IV has altered it.
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Experiment
A method of research in which all variables other than the independent variable and dependent are controlled. This allows the researcher to identify a cause and effect relationship between the IV and the DV.
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Participant
A person who is selected to take part in a study.
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Order Effect
When a participants performance in the second condition of the study is affected because they have already done the first condition. They may do better because of practice or worse because of tiredness.
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Participant variables
The differences between the people who take part in the study. These may affect the results of an experiment that uses an independent groups design.
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Independent Groups
The people available for the experiment are split into two groups, and each group takes part in one condition of the experiment.
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Repeated Measures
There is only one group of participants, who take part in all conditions of the experiment.
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Matched Pairs
The people available to take part in an experiment are tested before the experiment, and put into pairs based on their qualities. The pairs are then divided into two groups, that each take part in separate conditions of the study.
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Standardized Procedures
A set order of carrying out a study that is applied to all participants when necessary.
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Random Allocation
A procedure for putting participants into conditions by chance.
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Counterbalancing
A procedure for evening out the order in which participants complete both conditions of an experiment.
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Instructions
The written or verbal information given to participants during the experiment.
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Extraneous Variable
A variable that is not the IV but could still affect the DV if its not controlled
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Randomisation
Using chance to produce an order for a procedure.
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Ecological Validity
The results of the investigation can be said to apply to real-life behaviour. They are an accurate account of behaviour in the real world.
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Sample
A small group of people who represent the target population and who are studied.
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Target Population
The large group of people the researcher wishes to study.
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Representative
The sample of participants is made up of people who have the same characteristics and abilities as the target population.
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Generalised
The results from the sample that can be said to apply to the target population.
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Random Sample
When every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
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Opportunity Sample
People who are members of the target population and are willing and available to take part in an experiment.
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Systematic Sample
every "nth" member of the target population is selected for the sample.
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Stratified Sample
The different subgroups of the target population are identified, and people are randomly selected from those subgroups in proportion to their numbers in the target population.
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Raw Data
The scores collected in a study that have not been analysed or summarized.
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Mean
A statistic calculated by adding al the scores in a set of values and dividing the total by the number of values in the set.
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Median
The middle value in a set of values when the values have been arranged in ascending order.
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Range
The difference between the lowest and highest value in a set of values.
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Anomalous Results
An extremely high or low result that does not match the other results in a set of scores.
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Ethical Issues
Points of concern about what is morally right.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

A factor or thing that can change (it varies)

Variable

### Card 3

#### Front

the variable that the researcher alters or manipulates to look for an effect on another variable.

### Card 4

#### Front

The variable that the researcher measures to see if the IV has altered it.

### Card 5

#### Front

A method of research in which all variables other than the independent variable and dependent are controlled. This allows the researcher to identify a cause and effect relationship between the IV and the DV.