Psychology: Memory Structures and Process

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  • Created by: cheryllee
  • Created on: 18-10-19 23:21
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  • Memory: Structures and Process
    • Encoding
      • Key Words
        • Encoding: To translate the information so it can be stored as a memory
        • Storage: Where the memory is held for a period of time (potentially a lifetime)
      • Types of encoding
        • Visual Encoding: Where the information is encoded through images
        • Acoustic Encoding: Where the information is encoded through sound
        • Semantic Encoding: Where the information is encoded through its meaning
      • Retrieval
        • Cued-Recall: Where you recall an information through hints and cues
    • The Multi Store Model
      • sensory register - short term memory - long term memory
      • Key Words
        • Capacity: The amount of information that are able to be stored in the different store
        • Duration: The amount of time an information is able to be stored in the different store
        • Coding: How  an information is able to be stored in the different store
      • Sensory Register
        • Duration: less than half a second
        • Capacity: Very High
        • Coding: Through all five senses
      • Short Term Memory
        • Duration: Less than 30 seconds
        • Capacity: 5 to 9 chunks or items of information
        • Coding: Tends to be Acoustic
      • Long Term Memory
        • Duration: Potentially a lifetime
        • Capacity: Potentially unlimited
        • Coding: Tends to be semantic
      • Evaluation
        • Strength: There are supporting research
          • There are many other research that shows different stores exists
        • Limitation: The model is too simple
          • Research has shown that there are more than one type of LTM
            • This suggests that the model isn't as simple as it looks
        • Limitation: Uses Artificial Task
          • This study often requires participants to recall word lists
            • Which is not how we use our memory in our day to day life
              • the results does not illustrate the different ways we use memory instead it focus on verbal learning
    • Baddeley Study
      • Aim:
        • To see if there was a difference in the type of encoding used in short and long term memory
      • Procedure / Method
        • He had four groups of participants
      • Results
        • Participants in Group B did better than participants in Group A
        • Participants in Group D did better than participants in Group C
      • Conclusion
        • Overall the study suggests that Short term Memory encodes acoustically and long term memory encodes semantically
      • Evaluation
        • Strength : A controlled study
          • The study was conducted in a lab so there was no extraneous variable that are able to affect the results
            • Therefore, we can be more sure that the result is more accurate
        • Limitation: Was Baddeley actually testing LTM?
          • He only tested 20 minutes after the participants memorise the lists, he should have made the time period longer (e.g. a day or at least an hour)
            • Baddeley might not be testing what he claim to be testing
        • Limitation: STM may sometimes be visual
          • A later study by Brandimonte suggest that STM is encoded visually
            • This shows that STM is not always encoded acoustically
    • Types of Long Term Memory

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