Research Process and Sampling

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Research Process- Stage 1
Research Aims and Hypothesis
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Research Process- Stage 2
Carry Out Pilot Studies
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Research Process- Stage 3
Selecting Samples
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Research Process- Stage 4
Collecting Data
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Research Process- Stage 5
Analysing Data
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Research Process- Stage 6
Evaluating Project
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What the researcher plans to investigate
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An informed guess of what might be true (Usually a written statement, that can be tested and supported by evidence, or proved wrong)
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Pilot Study
Small-Scale trial run carried out before main research.
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Advantages of Pilot Study
Saves; Time, Money, Effort. (Researcher can check the research method is suitable for the study to give valid data to address the aims)
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Peer Review
Before anything is officially published, they are assessed and reviewed by experienced sociologists = Form of Quality Control
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Simple Random Sample
Each memeber of the population has equal chance of being included (Computers are used to select)
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Systematic Sample
For example, picking every 10th name on a register
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Stratified Sample
Dividing the population into sub-groups and choosing a sample from each group in proportion to it's size
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Snowball Sample
Researcher contacts 1 member of population until they gain their trust and individual will name others that may co-operate. Obtains a sample but is unlikely to be representative
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Quota Sample
Each interviwer has to interview an exact number of people from a group (females, teenagers) in proportion to their figures in the wider population
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Purposive Sample
Selected according to a known characteristic (head teacher, MP)
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General statement or conclusion applying not only to the sample studied but also the broader population
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Sampling Frame
A list of the members in the population
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Representative Sample
A sample with the same characteristics as the wider population but on a smaller scale
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Positives of the Different Sampling Methods
Representative, Quick, Easy, Equal Chance
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Negatives of the Different Sampling Methods
Unrepresentative, Biased, Time Consuming, Expensive
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Ethical Issues
Consent for under 18's, Participants the right to withdraw, Anoymous and Confidentiality
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Primary Research
Data is collected by the researcher themselves
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Secondary Research
Data is collected by someone else
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Advantages of Primary Research
More accurate, Firsthand, Up to date, Relevant
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Disadvantages of Primary Research
Time consuming, Expensive, Difficult to collect large amounts of data
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Advantages of Secondary Research
Easy to colect mass of data, Cheap, Lots of available sources
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Disadvantages of Secondary Research
More likely to be biased, Researchers aims may be different, Out of date
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Overt Observation
Participant knows they are being observed
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Covert Observation
Participant does not know they are being observed, the researcher goes undercover
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Longitudal Study
A study that continues over a long-period of time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Carry Out Pilot Studies


Research Process- Stage 2

Card 3


Selecting Samples


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Card 4


Collecting Data


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Card 5


Analysing Data


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