sampling methods

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  • sampling methods
    • random sampling
      • every member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen
    • systematic sampling
      • researcher takes a sampling frame in the form of a list
      • researcher numbers the participants and then picks the participants at a set interval
      • practical and ethical influences
        • practical
          • to time comsuming
          • too much money
          • access to participants
          • characteristics
          • funding body
        • ethical
          • free from harm
          • confidentiality
          • gate keeper
          • anomymity
          • informed consent
    • stratified sampling
      • involves sorting the population into groups you want to look at
      • sociologist would randomly choose people from the group in proportion to the population
    • non probability sampling
      • sampling technique where samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected.
      • examples of probability sampling
        • quota sampling
          • classify the population into catergories
          • when you have the right proportion for each, you can stop recruiting from that catergory (you have met your quota)
        • oppotunity sampling
          • consists of using participants that are available at the time
        • snowball sampling
          • finding one member of a certain group and asking them if they know anyone else you could participate
    • things to keep in mind
      • informed consent
      • confidentiality
        • keeping personal details between you and the respondent
      • anonymity
        • making sure that no names re mentioned in your finished report or in the data collection
      • protecting yourself
        • making sure that you/your researchers don't put themselves in dangerous situations
      • ethical considerations
        • making sure that you research is not harming/offending anyone
      • gatekeeper
        • someone who gives permission for other people to be involved in your research
      • protection from harm
        • ensuring that your paricipants are protected from any physcological/ohysical damage
    • primary and secondary data
      • primary
        • data that has been collected first hand by yourself or a particular piece of research
          • questionnaires
          • conducting an experiment
      • secondary
        • data that is already there that has been collected by other researchers
          • old photogrpahs
          • research from other sociologists
          • information from the media
          • official statistics
    • interviews
      • focus groups
        • asking different types of opinions from different people
        • get more information
      • unstructured interviews
        • not prepared questions
        • questions will link to previous answers to interact with the interviewee more
      • structured interviews
        • one to one
        • more detailed questions and answers
        • prepared questions

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