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    • Key Concepts
      • Culture: Refers to the way of life in a particular society
      • Values: Provide general guidelines for conduct
      • Norms: Define expected behaviour in particular places/situations
    • Socialisation
      • Refers to the process by which we learn the culture, norms and values of our society.
        • Primary Socialisation:Usually refers to the agencies you experience most in younger life. E.g. Families or Parents
        • Seconadry Socialisation: Usually refers to agencies in later childhood and continuing into adult lives. Eg. School, Mass Media, Peer groups
    • Data & Research
      • The research process: 1) Aims/hypothesis 2) Pilot studies 3) Sample selecting 4)collecting data 5)analysing data 6) evaluating project
      • Aims:What the researcher is planning to investigate Hypothesis: An informed guess.
      • Pilot Studies: A trial run carried out before the main research. Helps overcome potential problems
      • Sampling
        • Probability sampling
          • Random sampling: each member of population has equal chance of being selected. use computers
          • Systematic sampling: taking every 'nth' item from the sampling frame
          • Stratified sampling: involves dividing population into strata and then choosing randomly
        • Non-probability Sampling
          • Snowball sampling: contacting one person until they give you another person.
          • Quota Sampling: often used for interviews. A number of certain category in proportion to the wider population.
          • Purposive sampling: sample is selected according to a known characteristic.
      • Data collection and analysis: as part of research process, researchers collect and analyse data. Sources of data are either primary (questionnaires, observation) or secondary (mass media, letters, diaries)
        • Data maybe either quantitative (numbers) or qualitative (words).
      • Evaluation: Peer review, an important part of research process, operates as a form as quality control.
    • Surveys & Questionnaires
      • Social surveys involve collecting information from a large amount of people.
      • 3 main ways of delivering questionnaires
        • Postal: the self completing questionnaire is mailed to the respondent, who completes it and sends it back to researcher.
          • Advantages: Cost effective. Provide statistical data on differences between respondents. Can be replicated to check reliability of findings.
          • Limitations: Tend to have low response rates. Respondents cannot develop their answers and may misunderstand or skip questions.
        • Hand delivered: researcher hands the questionnaire to the respondent and then returns it straight after.
        • Formal or structured interviews: face to face or phone. interviewer asks standard questions and respondent gives answers there and then.
      • Closed or fixed-choice questions: yes/no questions or tick box questions. Easily presented in quantitative data.
      • Open-ended questions: respondents put forward there own answers instead of choosing. Responses are varied and more suitable for qualitative data.


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