Religious Fundamentalism

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  • Created by: Megan
  • Created on: 17-04-15 11:29
Define fundamentalism
Belief in the need to subscribe or return to traditional values and practices, usually involving the literal translation and belief in a religious text
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According to HOLDEN (2002) what does religious fundamentalism offer?
The Jehovah's Witnesses offer hope, direction and certainty in a world that seems increasingly insecure, confusing and morally lost.
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How can fundamentalism lead to violence?
When fundamentalists value their beliefs above the tolerance of those who do not share them. e.g. bombing of abortion clinics in the USA
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When was the revival of Christian Fundamentalism in the USA? What was the group called?
In the 1970s. In 1979 Jerry Falwell founded the MORAL MAJORITY. Which was a conservative political movement that wanted to return to traditional values
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What 6 things did the MORAL MAJORITY identify as the ills of modern society?
1) High divorce rates 2)Widespead child delinquency 3)Pornography 4)Adultery in the white house 5)Abortion 6)Tolerance of homosexuality
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How did the MORAL MAJORITY influence politics?
Evidence that they had influence on the election of Bush and his policies. Shortly after the election he created the Office of Faith based programmes.
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What was the Office of Faith Based Programmes?
Encouraged religious groups to take over the welfare services of the homeless, unemployed, drug addicts and alcoholics. The most vulnerable in society are now cared for by the church
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How do Islamic Fundamentalist movements see themselves?
As saviours and moral guardians of their societies. They are the chosen few who must restore true religion.
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What did the Shah of Iran feel was holding back his country? What did he do about it?
Traditional islamic culture was holding back modernisation. He introduced a western curriculum in schools and invited western companies to develop agriculture and industry. By 1970s much of Iran was westernised
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What did many people resent in Iran?
The wealthy elite and the influence of the West
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Who were the ayatollahs ?
They blamed poverty on the decline of Islam and on Western influence. Their solution was to return to a truly islamic society based on the Qur'an.
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What happened in Iran in 1979?
The people overthrew the Shah and an Islamic State was established under the leadership of the Ayatollah's. Women had to stay at home to study the Qur'an and cover themselves in public. Schoolchildren recited the Qur'an instead of the national anthem
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How does fundamentalism contradict itself?
In one respect they are conservative forces, yet at the same time they are trying to change society e.g. by changing the moral landscape or ridding a country of western influence to create a new society
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What type of religion did BRUCE (2007) argue are more likely to be fundamentalist, why?
Monotheistic religions because they believe God is revealed through one authoritative text. He also identified that there may be different origins of fundamentalism; Want change and Response to change
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What are the 7 Key features/things fundamentalists do?
1) Interpret texts literally 2)Reject religious pluralism 3)Find a personal experience of Gods presence 4)Oppose secularisation and modernity 5) Promote conservative beliefs 6)Emerge in response to social inequality 7)Make maximum use of modern tech
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Why do fundamentalist groups interpret sacred texts literally?
In order to counter what they see as the diluting influence of excessive intellectualism among more liberal organisations. Text from scripture is also used to support their arguments
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Why do they reject religious pluralism?
Tolerance of other religious ideas waters down personal faith
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Why do fundamentalist followers find a personal experience of God's presence?
They define all areas of life as sacred, thus requiring a high level of engagement. e.g. Fundamentalist christians are born again to live their lives in a special relationship with Jesus
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Why do they oppose secularisation and modernity?
They believe that accomodation of the changing world undermines religious conviction and leads to moral corruption
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Why do they tend to promote conservative beliefs inc. patriarchal ones?
They argue God intends humans to live in heterosexual societies dominated by men
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Why do they tend to emerge in response to social inequality?
They attract members by offering solutions to desperate, worried or dejected people
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Why do they make maximum use of modern technology?
To compete on equal terms with those who threaten their existence. e.g. The Christian Right use TV to preach the 'word' .
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

According to HOLDEN (2002) what does religious fundamentalism offer?

Back

The Jehovah's Witnesses offer hope, direction and certainty in a world that seems increasingly insecure, confusing and morally lost.

Card 3

Front

How can fundamentalism lead to violence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When was the revival of Christian Fundamentalism in the USA? What was the group called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What 6 things did the MORAL MAJORITY identify as the ills of modern society?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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