PY1 Behaviourist flashcards

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  • Created by: bananaaar
  • Created on: 24-03-14 09:44
What is the first assumption of the behaviourist approach?
That behaviour is learned by assosiation. (classical conditioning). If 2 stimuli are paired together on several occasions, a person/animal will learn to respond to 2st stimulus as they originally did for 1st stimulus.
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Example for 1st biological approach assumption
Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate (CR) to a bell (CS) after this sound was paired with food powder ((UCS). Also litle albert (Watson) learned to fear a white rat (CR) after the rat was paired with a loud noise (UCS)
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2nd assumption of behaviourist approach?
Behaviour is learned through reinforcement (operant conditioning). If behaviour is followed by a positive reinforcer (praise) then it will be repeated. Behaviour will also be repeated if it stops something bad happening (megative reinforcement).
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2nd assumption of behaviourist approach example?
Skinner got rats to learn to press levers by rewarding them with food pellets when they pressed the lever.
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What does the Social Learning Theory Assume?
That aggression is learned and reinforced by observation and imitation of role models. The reinforcement can be direct (e.g. a child behaves in a certain way because he has previously been rewarded for that behaviour), or indirect/vicarious (child se
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Describe the reinforcement in the social learning theory.
The reinforcement can be direct (e.g. a child behaves in a certain way because he has previously been rewarded for that behaviour), or indirect/vicarious (e.g. a child sees a role model being rewarded for aggressive behavious, so imitates behaviour.)
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Describe the factors which make a child more likely to imitate aggression.
A child is likely to imitate an aggressive role model if they are the same sex, same age, of high status in their mind, and are likeable.
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Describe the Long ARRM part of SLT.
The stages of role modelling entail attention (of role models behaviour), retention (of a mameory of aggression), reproduction (of the aggression) and motivation to repreoduce the aggression due to reinforcement.
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Discribe how SLT is illustrated in Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment.
Different groups of children watched adult role models play with toys, 1 group then saw the role model being aggressive towards bobo. When the children were later asked to play with a range of toys, children who observed aggression were agressive.
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What does SLT suggest?
Children observe and imitate aggression in their parents, peers, on TV or in films and in computer games.
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Example of SLT and the conclusion
During the London 2011 roits, young people in particular observed the aggressive behaviour on TV and imitated it for free goods or recognition from peers. SLT thus suggests that a child will behave aggressively if they are rewarded for aggression.
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What does the main assumption of the BA say normal behaviour is determined by?
Normal behaviour is determined by appropriate larning, and abnormal behaviour is determined due to faulty learning.
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How does the main assumption of the BA link to therapy?
Links to Systematic Desentitisation therapy (SD) which aims to make abnormal behaviour normal by unlearnign faulty learning such as phobia behaviour and replacing it with appropriate learning using counter conditioning.
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How does SD work?
By breaking the assosiation between a stimulus and an inappropriate response e.g. an arachnaphobic screaming (response) when they see a spider (stimulus).
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What is the aim of SD?
To replace the scream response with a relaxed response when confronted by a spider.
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First step of SD
Role of the therapist is to draw up a hierarchy of anxiety with the client - a ladder of feared stimuli, e.g. looking at picture of a spider to holding a real one.
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2nd step of SD
The client learns how to relax their muscles completely, e.g. using deep breathing and meditation.
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3rd step of SD?
Client works up through each step of the hierarchy relaxing at each stage. A new stimulus-response link is formed at eah step. Working up through each step can be real (e.g. looking at real spiders) or virtual (imagining spider).
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What happens if client gets distressed at 3rd stage of SD
Therapist takes client back a stage if he/she becomes distressed.
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Example of SD?
If an older Little ALbert went for SD he would have drawn up a hierarchy of fears, with cotton wool and white beards at the bottom and white rat at top. He would've learned to relax at each stage.
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When is a phobia considered cured?
When the top step is reached and the client is able to relax when faced with the thing they most feared before SD.
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Success rate of SD?
McGrath found that SD is effective in 75% of cases. This fugure illustrates how the behaviourist assuption about learning has been successfully applied to SD to help treat abnormal behaviour.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Example for 1st biological approach assumption

Back

Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate (CR) to a bell (CS) after this sound was paired with food powder ((UCS). Also litle albert (Watson) learned to fear a white rat (CR) after the rat was paired with a loud noise (UCS)

Card 3

Front

2nd assumption of behaviourist approach?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

2nd assumption of behaviourist approach example?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the Social Learning Theory Assume?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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