Psychology Unit 2

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Conformity
A tendency to behave like the rest of the group.
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Membership groups
e.g. family; a group you are part of because you have to be, no choice.
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Reference groups
e.g. protest groups like animal rights; groups whose values are agreed with by a person who is NOT a member.
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Normative
A type of social influence/conformity where people conform because they want to be like the rest of the group (norm), to fit in, and to be accepted.
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Informational
A type of social influence/conformity where people conform because they are unsure, need to be right (don't want to look silly), and may think that others know better.
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Why do people conform?
Normative social influence, Informational social influence, Internalisation, Compliance.
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Internalisation
Where private opinion becomes consistent with public opinion.
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Compliance
Where the person conforms publicly but privately disagrees.
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Conformity often happens because of...
Situation and uniform.
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Obedience
This is an extreme form of compliance where a person follows orders; submission to superior's will.
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Why do people obey?
Agency theory, Just World hypothesis, authoritarian personality, gradual commitment, and legitimate authority.
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Agency theory
People in a particular situation see themselves as agents of an authority; the authority is responsible.
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Just World hypothesis
The belief that everyone deserves what they get, e.g. Jews were money-brokers and hated because of this, and learners in Milgram's experiment got the answers wrong.
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Authoritarian personality
People who are entirely obedient to people they consider to have a higher authority but are aggressive to anyone they consider to be of a lower power to them.
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Gradual commitment
Having started, you just continue and finish (e.g. in Milgram's experiment it is just as easy to press the first switch as it is to press the final 450V switch).
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Legitimate authority
Where it's recognised by the person in charge and is accepted by the person/people the person has authority over e.g. police or headteacher at school.
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Moral reasoning
High moral reasoning against what being asked to do will not do it (e.g. 35% refused to fulfil experiment for Milgram).
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Independent behaviour
Resisting social influence; non-conformists.
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Factors that affect independent behaviour....
Situation (venue, proximity, low authority, expertise) and personality (self-esteem/confidence, locus of control).
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Internal locus of control
Where a person believes that they are in control of their circumstances (they choose what happens to them); leads to non-conformist and independent behaviour.
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External locus of control
Where a person believes that they have little control over their own circumstances (e.g. luck/fate).
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What conditions are needed for minority influence?
Consistency, subtlety, flexibility, autonomy.
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Social impact theory
Conformity is dependent on 3 factors; strength, status, and immediacy.
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The Snowball Effect
Individuals with minority views -> Small groups -> Large groups -> Becomes the law (legal) [e.g. women's rights started with Emily Pankhurst].
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Role of minority influence in social change...
1. Can set up reference groups e.g. terroists 2. Can improve acceptance of a group e.g. Polish working in the UK 3. Can change social views e.g. womens/gay rights
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

e.g. family; a group you are part of because you have to be, no choice.

Back

Membership groups

Card 3

Front

e.g. protest groups like animal rights; groups whose values are agreed with by a person who is NOT a member.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A type of social influence/conformity where people conform because they want to be like the rest of the group (norm), to fit in, and to be accepted.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A type of social influence/conformity where people conform because they are unsure, need to be right (don't want to look silly), and may think that others know better.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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