Psychology Key Words

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Aim
A general statement about the purpose of the study
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Case Study
A study that explores the behaviour of an individual in detail
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Correlation
A statistical technique to quantify the relationship between two variables
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Counterbalancing
A way of controlling order effects by splitting participants into two groups
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Co-Variables
The two measurements used in a correlation
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Demand Characteristics
Participants changing the way they behave in an experiment
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Dependent Variable
Variable that is directly affected by changes in the independent variable
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Descriptive Statistics
Methods of numerical summary
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Ecological Validity
Extent to which research can be generalised to "the real world"
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Event Sampling
Making observations of specific events every time they occur for the duration of an observation
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Experiment
Study in which an independent variable is manipulated, a dependent variable and other variables are controlled
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Extraneous Variables
Anything other than the IV that could affect the DV
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Field Experiment
Conducting research in an everyday environment
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Generalisability
Justified expansion of conclusions to a population or group of objects
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Hypothesis
Assumed relationship between variables that is to be tested
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Independent Measures
Different participants used in each condition of the experiment
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Independent Variable
Variable that is manipulated by the conditions of the experiment
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Inter-Rater Reliability
The extent to which different observers are able to observe behaviour in the same way
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Laboratory Experiment
Method of conducting research where all variables but the IV are controlled
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Matched Pairs Design
Seperate groups of Ps used, matched on a set of characteristics
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Objectivity
Not allowing personal interpretation to influence results
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Observation
An observer records behaviour exhibited by a participant in either a natural or controlled environment
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Opportunity Sampling
Whoever is avaliable and willing to participate in an experiment
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Order Effects
Where problems may arise from participants doing the task twice
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Population Validity
Extent to which research can be generalised to rest of the population/other populations
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Psychometric Test
Test to measure psychological factors in a person
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Qualitative data
Data about thoughts, feelings, opinions and experiences
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Quantitative data
Numerical data
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Quasi Experiment
Where the IV occurs naturally
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Random Sampling
Everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being selected
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Reliability
Consistency of results
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Repeated Measures Design
Same group of Ps in each condition
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Replication
If an experiment can be replicated with a different Ps on a different occasion
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Self-Report
Research technique that looks at people's behaviour by asking them questions
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Social Desirability Bias
Ps wanting to "look good" so change answers in order to do so
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Time sampling
Taking a record on a time interval within the time frame of the observation
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Validity
Extent to which can research measured the effect of what "it set out to measure"
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Volunteer Sample
Participants volunteer to take part in an experiment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A study that explores the behaviour of an individual in detail

Back

Case Study

Card 3

Front

A statistical technique to quantify the relationship between two variables

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A way of controlling order effects by splitting participants into two groups

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The two measurements used in a correlation

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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