Psychology: Unit 2 - Learning

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Learning
A relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience.
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Classical Conditioning
A procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus.
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Classical Conditioning Schedule
The steps in the procedure to condition a new response.
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Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
The stimulus that produces a reflex respones, such as the food for Pavlov's dog.
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Unconditioned Response (UCR)
The reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus, such as Pavlov's dog's salivation.
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Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A new stimulus presented with the UCS, such as the bell in Pavlov's experiment.
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Conditioned Respone (CR)
The response that is learnt; it now occurs when the CS is presented, such as Pavlov's dog's salivation.
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Extinction
A conditioned response dies out.
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Spontaneous Recovery
A conditioned response that has disappeared suddenly appears again.
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Generalisation
The conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the original stimulus is presented.
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Discrimination
(With reference to conditioning) The conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented.
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Operant Conditioning
Learning due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.
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Law Of Effect
Behaviours that are followed by rewards are usually repeated; those that are punished are not usually repeated.
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Punishment
A stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we try to avoid it.
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Reinforcement
A consequence of behaviour that encourages or strengthens a behaviour. This might be seen as a reward.
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Positive Reinforcement
A reward or pleasant consequence that increases the liklihood that a behaviour or action will be repeated.
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Negative Reinforcement
When an unpleasant experience is removed after a behaviour or action has been made. This increases the liklihood of that behaviour or action being repeated.
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Behaviour Shaping
Changing behaviour in small steps.
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Phobia
A persistent and irrational fear of an object, activity or situation. The typical symptoms are intense feelings of fear and anxiety to avoid the object, activity or situation.
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Flooding
A treatment for phobias that involves the immediate exposure of the person to the feared object, activity or event, until there is no fear response.
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Systematic Desensitisation
A treatment for phobias in which the person is taught to relax and then is gradually exposed to the feared object, activity or event.
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Hierarchy Of Fears
A series of feared events ranked from least frightening to most frightening.
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Aversion Therapy
A treatment for addictions, such as drug and alcohol dependency, which makes the addict have an extremely negative reaction to an addictive substance.
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Primary Reinforcer
A reward, such as food or water, that the animal or person needs in order to survive.
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Secondary Reinforcer
A reward, such as money or a token, that the animal or person can exchange for a primary reinforcer.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A procedure during which an animal or person learns to associate a reflex response with a new stimulus.

Back

Classical Conditioning

Card 3

Front

The steps in the procedure to condition a new response.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The stimulus that produces a reflex respones, such as the food for Pavlov's dog.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus, such as Pavlov's dog's salivation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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