psychology unit 2

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define comformity
changing your behaviour because of a imagined or real group pressure
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what 2 reasons are there for conforming
1.to fit in, to be accepted or to not be made fun of 2.becuase you are unsure how to act but want to be correct
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define obedience
when a person follows order from a perceived authority figure
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what factors are there that affect obedience
personal responsiblity, status of location, legitimate authority and disobience role model
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define deindividuation
the loss of self awareness and personal responsibility that occurs when someone is a amember of a crowd
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why may deindividuation happen
we feel anonymous therefore have fewer restraints on behaviour, we are therefore more likely to be impulsive and follow the behaviour we see
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what factors are there that affect deindividuation
group size, anonymity, wearing a uniform
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define social loafing
the tendency to reduce the amount of effort an individual puts in as the number of people in the group increase
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what are the factors that affect soical loafing
group size and culture
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define bystander intervention
when outlookers help others who are in need
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define bystander apathy
when outlookers do nothin in an emergency when someone is in need of help because they think somebody else will do it
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what are the factors what affect bystander intervention
diffusion of responsibility, similarity/empathy and cost of helping
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define empathy
being able to put yourself in someone elses position andunderstand how that person is feeling
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whats a practical implication of conformity
we now understand that people in a jury might conform to a guilty verdict
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what a practical implication of obedience
helps us understand how the nazi party could so much terrible things to innocent people during world war 2
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whats a practical implication of bystander intervention
helps us understand how crimes can do unreported
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define agression
behaviour that is intended to harm/ hurt another person either phsyically or verbally or is intended to destory property
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what is the biological factors of aggression
it suggest that agression comes from our biological make up and that people who are aggressive were simply born that way. it also suggest that an individual biology may affect aggression in three different ways
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whats is the biology explanation of aggression from hormones
one thoery is that biological approach put forward is that aggresion is linked to high levels of certain hormones
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what hormone os though to make people more aggresive
testosterone
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what are the biology explanation of agression
hormones, brain abnormality, chromosomal abnormality,
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what is the explanation for the biological explain of brain abnormality for aggression
some psychologists believe that aggression stems from brain damage or brain disease for example damage to the limibic system especially the amygdala
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what is the role of the amygdala
the amygdala role is to respond to emotions and creates emotional responses
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what is the supporting evidence for biological theory
1. violent criminals have higher levels of testosterone that non-violent criminals 2. there is a higher than normal proportion of men with extra Y chromosomes amongst violent offender
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what is psychodynamic theory of aggression
that we have unconscious drive that cause aggression. Aggression is cause by an internal force/ instinct called thanatos. All the time this instinct is building inside of us, it creates pressure until sooner or later we cannot control it
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in the psychodynamic theory ofaggresion how do we protect yourself from a self-destructive instinct
we protect yourself by using ego defence mechanisms. these redirect the aggression outwards so that instead of harm ourselves we harm others or redirect energy into something safe
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define displacement
being aggressive to other people
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define sublimation
channelling the energy into accepting activities like rugby or boxing
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what is the social learning theory of aggression
social learning theory suggests that aggression is learned behaviour
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according to the social learning theory why do children learn from observation of others
those who are observed are called role models
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why do children imitate role models
children are more likely to imitate role models because they are similar eg. same sex, same age
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define vicarious reinforcement
when the child sees the model being rewarded for being aggressive they are more likely to copy it this is because they except to revive the same rewards the model did
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how can u reduce aggressive using the biological explanation
prescription drugs, psychosurgery
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in the biological explantion of reducing aggression what does prescription medicine do
ritalin stimulates the prefrontal cortex so that it is able to control the limbic system and reduce aggressive behaviour
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in the biological explantion of reducing aggression what does psychosurgery do
destorying the part of the brain that is not functioning properly by inserting a probe into part of the brain (usually the limbic system) to kill the nerve
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what is a strength of biological explanation of reducing aggression
both techniques are effective. Drugs are cheap and work quickly
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what is a weakness of biological explanation of reducing aggression
Drugs often have side effects that leave the persons with additional problems and psychosurgery is irreversible
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what is the psychodynamic explanation of reducing aggression
sublimation- put aggressive energy into sport by taking part in or watching sport Catharsis- watch violence on TV and in films to let out your aggressive insticts
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what is a strength and weakness of the psychodynamic explanation of reducing aggression
strength- there is some real life evicence that people seem to need to express their aggression to stop them from "exploding" weakness- there is alot of research that suggest that playing sport and watching violent films/tv increases aggression
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what is the social learning explanation of reducing aggression
we should observe models being punished for aggressive behaviour. Observe models behaving non-aggressive
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what is a strength and weakness of the social learning explanation of reducing aggression
strength- lots of studies support that children are more likely to be aggressive if they see a lot of aggression around them Weakness- it is probably not enough to reduce the amount of aggression that children observe as there are other factors
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define classical conditioning
classical conditioning is learning by association
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define unconditional stimulas
the thing that causes the natural response
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define unconditional response
the natural response to the unconditional stimuli ( its not been learned)
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define conditioned stimulas
the thing that is now associated with the new learnt response
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define conditioned response
the response that is associated with a certain stimuli
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define extinction
this is when the learnt behaviour died out because the reinforcer
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define spontaneous recovery
this is the reversal of extinction, without further intervention by the experimenter. A response spontaneously reoccurs after extinction has occurred
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define Generalisation
This is where a response to a particular stimulus is also made to other similar stimuli
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define discrimination
this is where the stimulus to which the response is made becomes "fine-tuned"
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thorndike formulated the law of effect. What is it?
behaviours that are followed by rewards are repeated
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define operant conditioning
when the consequences of a behaviour determine whether that behaviour is repeated or not
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what are consequence of behaviour known as
reinforcement
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define behaviour shaping
building behaviour patterns up gradually
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define positive reinforcement
something which follows on from a behaviour and increases the chance that it will be reported
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define negative reinforcement
the behaviour results in the taking away of something bad
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define punishment
something which follows on from a behaviour and decrease the chance that it will be repeated
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define phobia
a strong irrational fear for something that poses little or no danger
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how are phobias treated
phobias are treated by techniques developed from classical conditioning : systematic desensitisation and flooding
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what is systematic desensitisation
the aim is to pair the stimulus that causes the fear with a states of relation . clients are taught how to relax all their muscles suing different steps in doing so using the hierarchy of fear until they can do it at will
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define hierarchy of fear
putting fearful situation in rank order
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define primary reinforcement
a reward such a food that directly gives us pleasure
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define secondary reinforcement
a reward such as tokens that can be exchanged for primary reinforcement
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what is flooding
a treatments for phobias where a person is rapidly exposed to a fearful object & cant escape until they are calm
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evaluate flooding
strength- researchers suggest that this is the most successful treatment weakness- patients undergo distress and it can make the phobia worse due to the traumatic experience
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evaluate systematic desensitisation
strength- successful in treating specific phobias and it is most suitable for children weakness- take a greater amount of time and less successful for treating general phobias
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what is aversion therapy
a treatment for addictions where addicts associate alcohol with negative consequences
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what is the ethical issues with aversion therapy
can be distressing for the patient as it makes the physically sick and sometimes does not last long term
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what is a token economy
where good behaviours are rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for nice things such as food
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evaluate token economy
research has shown it is very successful treatment but relapse is quite common and patients often became dependant on the system making it very difficult for them to leave the institution once they are better
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what is sex identity
it is the biological fact of being male or female
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what is gender identity
it is the psychological and cultural aspects of being male or female
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what is the psychoanalytic explanations of gender
gender roles are acquired through identification with parents, as parts of the resolution of the oedipus and electra conflict. this conflict comes about as a results of instinctual drives
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what is the oedipus complex
the boy desires his mother, fears that his father will get angry and castrate him, then identifies with his father to reduce the problems and copies his behaviour, speech and attitudes and therefore adopts male characteristics and male indentity
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what is the electra complex
the girl unconscious drive for her father and gets penis envy but fears losing her mothers love, then identify with order to reduce problems and copies her behaviour, speech and attitudes therefore adopts female identity and female characteristics
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evaluate the psychodynamic theory of gender development
strength- frued ideas have had a huge contribution to psychology weakness- only research was about one person so it cant be generalised to other people
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what is the social learning theory explanation of gender development
it says that gender identity is learnt through observation, imitation and reinforcement
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define modelling
anyone whose behaviour is observed is called model. we more likely to copy models of the same sex
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define imitation
copying the behaviours of others
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define vicarious reinforcement
when we learn behaviour from others who are rewarded we are more likely to copy behaviour
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evaluate socal learning theory of gender development
strength- there is a great deal of support it weakness-it cannot explain why some gender appropriate behaviour is shown in children who have never observed that behaviour
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what is gender scheme theory of gender development
gender develops based on beliefs about how males and females behaves. These beliefs come from schemas which develop with age
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what do gender schema contain
contains behaviours, cloths, activities, personail traits and roles for males and females. They are based on our experience of how males and females in the society that we live in
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Card 2

Front

what 2 reasons are there for conforming

Back

1.to fit in, to be accepted or to not be made fun of 2.becuase you are unsure how to act but want to be correct

Card 3

Front

define obedience

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what factors are there that affect obedience

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

define deindividuation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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