Psychology Unit 1

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Females have ** & Males XY. Some have **Y which makes them more feminine.
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Controls your gender.
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Oestrogen- Caring & Creative Testosterone-Agressive & Maths
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Have evolved to our gender. Men aggressive to survive. Women caring to look after children.
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Limitations: Identical Twins
Identical biology but different gender. Biology is fixed, gender is not.
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Limitations: Learnt
Gender can be learnt. Learn feminine traits from older sister.
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Limitations: Culture
Different in every country. Masculine things in one country are seen as feminine in another.
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Oedipus Complex
Boy desires there mother, but doesn't want to loose respect from the father. They then copy their father and identify with them.
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Electra Complex
Girls want a penis so begin to fancy their fathers. They don't want to loose their mothers love and want to have a baby and realise their mum can, so they identify with their mum
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Diamond & Sigmundson (S&G)
Boy raised as a girl? Castration went wrong- Become a girl. Develops masculine traits, gets told he was a boy and reverts back. Biology controls gender not nurture.
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Diamond & Sigmundson: Limitations
Learnt. Objective. Sample Size. Brother.
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Fair subjects.
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Input -> Encoding -> Storage -> Retrieval -> Output
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Multistore: Evaluation
Doesn't explain why we have different memories of the same thing. Doesn't explain why people can remember stuff without rehearsing it (deep processing).Cant explain multitasking.
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Terry (Memory)
Repeated measures. Student. Imediate recall. Delayed Recall. Remembered more in immediate (primary recency)
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Terry: Limiations
Lacks ecological validity. Demand characteristics (psychology students-knew).Generalisable (only to TV Ads)
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Memory Aids
Rehersal. LTM. Its creative so we remember it.
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Separation Protest
Showing upset & distress when away from an attachment figure.
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Stranger Anxiety
Shows distress when in presence of an unfamiliar person.
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Relationship based on trust. Child interacts with care giver.
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Insecure Ambivalent
Clingy & Demanding. Distressed when mother leaves. Cannot be comforted by stranger. When mother returns, pushes her away.
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Insecure Avoidant
Independent. Not much attention to mother. Easily comforted by stranger.
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The attachment to one care giver.
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Critical Period
The first 3 years of a child's life where attachment must be formed.
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No attachment
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Was an attachment & its been taken away.
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Bowlby: Limitaions
Multiple attachments-both parents. Critical period- children form bonds with adoptive parents (deprivation reversed).
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Hazen & Shaver (Attachment)
Childhood relationships affect later ones? Multiple choice questionnaire (USA). 2 types of question.56% secure (married). 25% insecure avoidant (single). 19% insecure ambivalent (jealous then clingy, divorced). Attachments affect adult relationships.
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Hazen & Shaver: Limitations
Multiple choice- Lied (reliability). Gender biased- more women replied than men (generalised). Social desirability. People may only remeber good things from childhood.
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Skin to skin. Allowed to visit parents in hospital. Parents can stay with child.Parenting classes.
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Doing as your told.
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Resisting orders.
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Denial of responsibility
Blaming actions on someone in higher authority except yourself.
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Situattional Factors Theory
Setting-Where you are. Culture-based on how much freedom a country gives you. Authority figure. Consensus- where everyone takes part.
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Situattional Factors Theory: Limitations
Personality. Ethics. Ecological validity.
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Bickman (Obedience)
More likely to obey someone in uniform? 3 males took turns to dress as milkman, police officer & business man. 153 brooklyn residents. Pick up litter, coin in parking meter,bus stop standing. More likely to obey someone in uniform.
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Bickman: Limitations
Extraneous Variables (weather & noise, no control). Ethics (no consent). Gender biased. Opportunity sample (not representative).
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In prison. Given a number. Takes away individuality and makes them a group. Easier to control.
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Atypical Behaviour
Behaviour seen as not 'Normal'
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Typical Behaviour
Behaviour seen as 'Normal'
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Behaviourists Theory
Behaviorism assumes that all behavior is learnt from the environment and symptoms are acquired through classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by association and is usually the cause of most phobias.
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Behaviourists Theory: Limitations
Individual differences. Indirect. Ignore evolutionary theory.
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Watson & Rayner (Phobias)
Can you learn a phobia? 11 month old baby. Given a white rat. Iron bar struck when playing with white rat. Albert becomes afraid of similar objects.You can learn a phobia.
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Waston & Rayner: Limitations
Unethical (harm). Sample size. Never unconditiopned or debriefed. Ecological Validity.
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Phobia straight on. Heart rate, pulse & BP increases & sweats.Have to calm down otherwise could die. Body will relax and realised it isn't that bad. Association of relaxed forms.
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Controls your gender.

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Limitations: Identical Twins


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