Psychology Ch. 1 Pioneers

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Gustav Fechner
Measured sensory abilities
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Rene Descartes
Biological; explained the reflex arc but incorrectly proposed that the pineal gland was the control centre.
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Mary Calkins
Worked under William James at Harvard
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Sigmund Freud
Developer of psychodynamic theory; proposed that some injuries were psychogenic (invented by thought)
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Jean Piaget
Studied IQ and different types of thinking and development. Developed Piageten theory (people of different ages think differently)
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Ivan Pavlov
Behaviourist; studied salivation in dogs and developed the theory of classical conditioning (learning through association)
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William James
Believed he was the first in the US, wrote first psych textbook
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Carl Rogers
Humanist; developed Rogeran therapy which was drastically different from others
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B.F. Skinner
Behaviourist; proposed theory of instrumental conditioning (learning from consequences)
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Carl Jung
Psychodynamic; studied under Freud but left after psychosexual theories. Establish Jungian therapy
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John Watson
Founder of behaviourism
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Karl Lashley
Biological; removed parts of rat brains and found that different functions were affected
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Wilhelm Wundt
The founder of psychology in 1876; structuralist
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Wilder Penfield
Biological; found during surgery for epilepsy that stimulating different brain parts caused different functions
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Wolfgang Kohler
Founder of Gestalt tradition; studied perceptions, learning, and illusions. Insight learning: learning in a separated environment with no direction
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Kurt Levin
Founder of social psychology; studied how groups influenced the individual
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Biological; explained the reflex arc but incorrectly proposed that the pineal gland was the control centre.

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Rene Descartes

Card 3

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Worked under William James at Harvard

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Card 4

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Developer of psychodynamic theory; proposed that some injuries were psychogenic (invented by thought)

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Card 5

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Studied IQ and different types of thinking and development. Developed Piageten theory (people of different ages think differently)

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