Psychology - Aggression

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  • Created by: alexhross
  • Created on: 05-06-16 14:31
Biological Explanation - Hormones
Chemicals released by our endocrine system that affect how our bodies function and how we behave.
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Hormones continued
Males are more aggressive. Men have much more testosterone so this hormones is thought to be the cause of aggression in males
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Chromosomes
The parts of each cells that carry genetic information from our parents.
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Chromosomes continued
Higher proportion of men with extra Y chromosome amongst violent offenders. Some men have XYY arrangement which can make men more aggressive.
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Limbic System
Past of the part that causes aggressive behaviour
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Prefrontal Cortex
Very front of the brain. It is involved in social and moral behaviour and controls aggression.
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Brain Disease
Damage to the brain causes by illness or trauma.
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Biological Explanation Study - Raine; Aim
To investigate brains of murderers.
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Raine; Method
Researchers gave 41 murderers in California a PET scan and compared them to a group of non-murderers.
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Raine; Results
Activity in prefrontal cortex for murderers was lower than non-murderers.
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Raine; Conclusion
When prefrontal cortex is not working normally it can lead to people committing violent crimes.
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Psychodynamic Explanation - Thanatos
Proposed by Freud. Thanatos is the part of our unconscious that causes our aggressive drive. Instinct is building up inside which causes pressure and then we cannot control it and it makes us do something aggressive.
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Ego Defence Mechanisms
Behaviour strategies used by the individual to protect itself. There are 2 defence mechanisms
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Displacement
Being aggressive towards other people.
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Sublimation
Channelling our aggression into other acceptable activities.
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Dollard et al
Argued that we need something to trigger aggression. Proposed frustration-aggression explanation
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Psychodynamic Explanation Study - Barker; Aim
To see the effect of frustration on aggressive behaviour.
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Barker; Method
Children were kept waiting a long time before being allowed to play in a room full of toys. Their behaviour was observed.
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Barker; Results
The children were more aggressive and destructive than other children who had not been frustrated by being kept waiting.
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Barker; Conclusion
Being frustrated does lead to an increase in aggression.
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Social Learning Theory
Suggests behaviour is caused by people how other people behave and copying it.
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Vicarious Learning
Learning by observation.
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Monitoring
Judging whether our own behaviour is appropriate or not.
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Punishment
A stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we ry to avoid it.
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Social Learning Theory Study - Bandura; Aim
To find out if 3 to 6 year old children would imitate the aggressive behaviour they see role models performing towards a 'bodo doll'.
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Bandura; Method
Researchers spilt 96 children into 4 groups. 3 were shown someone throwing, kicking and punching the doll. Their own behaviour was observed.
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Bandura; Results
The children who had witnessed the aggressive behaviour showed more aggressive behaviour than the children who had seen none.
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Bandura; Conclusion
Children will copy how they see others behave.
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Biological Methods of Reducing Aggression; ADHD
A disorder characterised by short attention span, poor concentration and uncontrollable aggressive outbursts.
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Ritalin
A drug used to control ADHD. It stimulates prefrontal cortex so it is able to control aggressive instincts caused by limbic system.
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Psychosurgery
An operation on the brain to remove or destroy the part that is causing abnormal behaviour.
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Psychodynamic Methods of Reducing Aggression
Fred suggested to predict aggressive instincts into safe activities using ego defence mechanisms.
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Catharsis
The process of getting rid of your emotions by watching other people experiencing emotion. So Freud suggests it was good to watch violence on TV as it is cathartic and gets aggressive instincts out of system.
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Social Learning Method of Reducing Aggression
Observe non-aggressive role models or see a role model being punished for being aggressive which was a second idea tested by Bandura
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Social Learning Method of Reducing Aggression Study - Bandura; Aim
To see if observing a role model being punished would reduce the chance of aggression being copied.
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Bandura; Method
Children were shown an adult model either being punished or reinforced for acting aggressively.
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Bandura; Results
Children who saw the model being punished were less aggressive themselves than those who saw the model reinforced.
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Bandura; Conclusion
If children see that aggression brings a punishment they will not copy it.
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Social Learning Method - Monitoring
People monitor their behaviour so it suggests it is possible to reduce aggression by getting people to think differently about how to behave.
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Card 2

Front

Hormones continued

Back

Males are more aggressive. Men have much more testosterone so this hormones is thought to be the cause of aggression in males

Card 3

Front

Chromosomes

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Chromosomes continued

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Limbic System

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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