Agression

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  • Agression
    • Development of Aggression
      • Biological
        • The Brain
          • Limbic System is part of the central nervous system linked to aggression.
          • Brain disease or trauma affecting the limbic system or PFC may lead to abnormally high levels of aggression.
        • Chromosomal Abnormality
          • Has been found in violent offenders
            • Extra Y Chromosome. When 23rd Chromosome fails to divide.
        • Hormones
          • Hormones linked to aggression ie Testosterone
            • Men have much higher levels than females
            • Supported by findings that violent criminals have higher levels of testosterone than non-violent criminals
      • Psychological
        • Psychodynamics and Frustration Aggression Hypothesis
          • Unconscious drive that causes aggressive behaviour
            • Caused by internal force called Thanatos- which drives us towards self destruction.
              • Builds up creating pressure until we cannot control it.
                • Dollard suggested we need a trigger for Thanatos to over spill- we need something to frustrate us.
          • Protecting ourselves from self destruction.
            • Sublimination- channelling aggression into other acceptable activities.
            • Displacement- being aggressive to other people.
        • Social Learning Theory
          • Aggressive behaviour is learnt by observation and immitation
    • Research into Development of Aggression
      • Biological - the Brain - Raine
        • Ignores other possible factors that could have caused a difference between murderers and non
        • Difficult to generalise findings
        • 41 murderers had a PET scan and compared them with a matched pairs group of non murderers.
          • Differences such as activity in the Pre-Frontal-Cortex was lower in non-murderers.
            • When the Pre-Frontal-Cortex is not working normally it can lead to people committing violent crimes.
      • Psychological - Frustration Aggression - Barker
        • Children were kept waiting for a long time before being allowed to play with toys. Behaviour was then observed.
          • Children were more destructive and aggressive than the children who had been not kept waiting.
            • Being Frustrated does lead to an increase in aggression.
        • Lacks Mundane Realism.
        • Ungeneralisable sample- children.
      • Psychological - Social Learning Theory - Bandura.
        • Children ages 3-5 saw a model behaving aggressively towards a bobo doll. The children were then observed playing with the doll.
        • Children were more likely to imitate a same sex model
          • Male ppts + Male Model = 38%
          • Male ppts + Female Model = 17%
          • Female ppts + Female Model = 19%
          • Female ppt and Male Model = 9%
        • If Models were praised then high levels of aggression happened.
        • Lacks Mundane Realism
        • Ungeneralisable sample - Children
    • Ways of Reducing Aggression
      • Biological
        • Drugs
          • Stimulate the Pre-Frontal-Cortex. E.g Ritalin
          • Problems of negative side effects or addiction
        • Pschosurgery
          • Destroying or removing part of the brain that isn't functioning properly. E.g amygdala or limbic system
          • Problem of long term and irreversible brain damage or memory loss
      • Psychodynamics and Frustration Aggression hypothesis
        • Sublimination and Catharsis
          • Watching someone else engaging in aggression can relieve built up aggression. E.g watching sports
            • Gives a person ownership and power to change their aggressive urges elsewhere
            • Watching aggression can subsequently lead to aggression
        • Avoiding situations that cause frustration.
          • The best way to reduce aggression is to avoid the initial cause of aggression and therefore the aggression that follows.
            • Proposes the idea that aggression can be overcome before the event.
            • You can't always control the events that make you frustrated.
      • Social Learning Theory
        • Punishment
          • Letting people observe aggressive models receiving punishment for violent behaviour or observing non-aggressive models reduces aggressive behaviour
            • Research supports the idea that observing aggression being punished can reduce aggressive behaviour.
            • Difficult to remove all the reinforcement, as it can come from several sources
        • Changing Models
          • Changing the models people are exposed to.
            • Difficult to change all the models people are exposed to
          • Non-aggressive models = non-aggressive behaviour.

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