ramirez et al

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RAMIREZ ET AL ­ CULTURE and aggression
AIM ­ to investigate whether aggression varied between cultures and different levels of aggression
between males and females
DESIGN Independent Measures Design
IV ­ whether the students were from Spain or Japan
DV ­ whether the students have different levels of aggression.
Involved 400 psychology students volunteered to take part
Half from Japan and half from Spain
All had to complete a questionnaire about different types of aggression
Likert style questions ­ answer to what extent they agree or disagree
Had to answer each question using a 5 point scale
1 ­ extremely unlike me
5 ­ extremely like me
Japanese showed more physical aggression
Spanish showed more verbal aggression
Males showed more physical and verbal aggression and hostility
Both cultures showed same levels of anger
Japanese are more physically aggressive which is against the stereotype of Japanese being shy
and not showing emotion.
Spanish are more verbally aggressive which is consistent with the stereotype of Spanish being
expressive of their emotions.

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Males are more aggressive, supports stereotype. Males are raised to be more masculine and
hormone differences.…read more


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