PI - experiment

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Name two conditions in an experiment and explain
Experimental condition - experience change, Control group - no change
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Why is there a control condition?
Generates 'baseline' results to compare against experimental condition
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Name 3 types of experiment, how are they different?
Lab - IV manipulated & artificial setting, Field - IV manipulated & natural surroundings, Quasi - IV naturally occurring.
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x3 advantages of a lab experiment?
high level of control, replicable, can establish cause and effect.
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x3 disadvantages of lab experiment?
can never achieve 100% control, risk of demand characteristics, low EV
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x3 advantages of a field experiment?
less demand characteristics, high EV, easier to generalize.
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x3 disadvantages of field experiment?
less control, more different to replicate, can have ethical issues e.g. consent
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x2 advantages of Quasi experiment?
High EV, less demand characteristics
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x3 disadvantages of Quasi experiment?
lack full control, different/impossible to replicate, hard to infer cause & effect
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3 experimental designs? explain
Repeated measures design - using same pp in each condition. Independent measures design - using different pp in each condition. Matched groups design - using different pp but attempt to make characteristics similar.
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x2 advantages of repeated measures design?
Controls for individual differences, need fewer pps.
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x3 disadvantages of repeated measures design?
risk of demand characteristics, risk of order effects, need 2 different tests.
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x3 advantages of independent measures design?
less demand characteristics, no order effects, can use same test with everyone
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x3 disadvantages of IMD?
Less valid (individual differences), extraneous variables, more pp's required.
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x4 advantages matched groups design?
fewer pp's needed, no order effects, less demand characteristics, can use same test with everyone.
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x3 disadvantages matched groups design?
time & effort of matching, never perfect match found, more pp's needed.
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Name 2 types of extraneous variables
Participant variables, Situational variables.
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What are pp variables?
Characteristics of the individual pp e.g. reading ability that may influence results
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What are situational variables?
Any feature of research situation e.g. surrounding pple which influences a pp's behaviour & results.
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What 2 ways can pp variables be controlled?
Use a repeated measures design (same) or MGD (similar). If using Ind.D allocate pp's to conditions on a random basis so pp variables evenly distributed between conditions.
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Problem of situation variables?
Order effects - doing same activity twice, do better/worse due to boredom or fatigue.
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x2 to control order effects?
Use different pp's in each condition (IMD), Counter-balance a repeated measure design - split group into 2, 2nd group do condition 2 first, then 1.
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What are demand characteristics?
Cues that communicate to pp's what's expected of them - may unconsciously affect beh. of pp's.
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How to control demand characteristics?
Don't tell pp's aim of investigation (single blind procedure).
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How to control environmental factors?
Same room, temperature, light levels, colours etc
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What's a hypothesis?
A precise testable statement of relationship between 2 variables.
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What's an alternative hypothesis? Give example
Predicts IV will affect DV e.g. 'there will be a significant difference between...'
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What's a null hypothesis?
Predicts IV won't affect DV, any difference seen will be due to chance factors rather than IV e.g. 'there will be no significant difference between... any different will be due to chance factors.'
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What's two tailed direction?
Predicts IV will have significant effect on DV but not show direction of effect (+/-)
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What's one-tailed direction?
Predicts IV will have significant effect on DV & direction.
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What is operationalising?
Making variables physically measurable.
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What are descriptive statistics?
Tables & graphs display findings in an easily comprehensible form, to show measures of central tendency.
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What are inferential statistics?
Show a difference in results beyond chance, make conclusion on which hypothesis to accept/reject.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is there a control condition?

Back

Generates 'baseline' results to compare against experimental condition

Card 3

Front

Name 3 types of experiment, how are they different?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

x3 advantages of a lab experiment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

x3 disadvantages of lab experiment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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