PSYA1 - Memory and Attachment

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What is a 'model'?
Not an exact copy, but a representation of something that helps us understand how something works
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Multi-store model - What is Encoding?
Taking info/stimulus from environment + programming it into our brains / Stimulus = visual (iconic), sound (acoustic) + smells - encoded into our brains as iconic/acoustic/semantic encoding
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Multi-Store model - What is storage?
Once info is encoded - has to be stored until needed at a later time - the length of time that it is stored for = DURATION / how much info can be stored = CAPACITY
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Multi-Store model - What is retrieval?
Recalling info using 'cues' to remember information stored - this may differ from person to person
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The Multi-store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968))
Environment (sensory stimuli) --> sensory memory (attention given) --> STM (rehearsal) --> LTM --> STM (retrieval)
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Sensory memory
Temporary storage of information taken in (iconic/acoustic) - Capacity = very large - Duration = very short (about 0.250ms for iconic + 1-2s for acoustic). Info can be lost through lack/diversion of attention or through trace decay
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STM - Capacity?
Small - 7 plus or minus 2 units - Miller's magic number 7 (Miller, 1956)
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STM - Duration?
Short - 20-30 seconds w/out rehearsal (Peterson & Peterson, 1959)
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STM - Encoding?
Acoustic
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STM - Forgetting
Through displacement + trace decay (storage failure)
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Studies on STM
Capacity = Baddeley et al. (1975) --- Duration = Peterson & Peterson (1959) --- Encoding = Baddeley (1966)
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LTM - Capacity
Infinite
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LTM - Duration
Lifetime
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LTM - Encoding
Semantic
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LTM - Forgetting
Through cue dependent retrieval failure + interference
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LTM - Types of memory
Procedural (habits + motor skills) and declarative (facts + personal experiences - episodic)
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Studies on LTM
Duration = Bahrick et al. (1975) --- Encoding = Baddeley (1966)
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Evidence in support of MSM
Glanzer and CUnitz (1966) --- Milner (1956) - Case study on H.M.
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Working Memory Model (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974)
Central executive --> Articulatory-Phonological loop (inner ear + voice) + Visuo-spatial sketchpad (inner eye) --> Episodic Buffer --> LTM
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What is eyewitness testimony
Evidence given in court about what was seen by an individual who witnessed events relevant to a crime
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Study on the role of anxiety
Loftus (1979) - Weapon focus
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Study on the age of witness
Valentine and Coxon (1997) --- Anastasia and Rhodes (2006)
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Misleading information study #1
Loftus and Palmer (1974) - "How fast was the car going when they 'hit' each other?"
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Misleading information study #2
Loftus (1975) - "Did you see a barn?"
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What is a cognitive interview?
Developed by Geiselman et al. (1985) and it is designed to be used by police investigators
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CI - Context reinstatement
Mentally recreated an image of situation including details of environment: weather conditions, individual's emotional state: feelings at the time of incident
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CI - Recall from changed perspective
Mentally recreate situation from different points of view, e.g. what another witness present would have seen
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CI - Recall in reverse order
Asked to recall/describe scene in a different chronological order, e.g. from end to start
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CI - Report everything
Interviewer encourages witness to report all details of event, regardless of their importance
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What are techniques for improving memory?
Cues (context + state cues) --- Method of loci --- Acronyms --- Peg-words --- Rhyming --- Narrative chaining
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Card 2

Front

Multi-store model - What is Encoding?

Back

Taking info/stimulus from environment + programming it into our brains / Stimulus = visual (iconic), sound (acoustic) + smells - encoded into our brains as iconic/acoustic/semantic encoding

Card 3

Front

Multi-Store model - What is storage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Multi-Store model - What is retrieval?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The Multi-store model (Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968))

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